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Madagascar News Forums Food for thought the domination of the Merina oligarchy

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    A treaty perceived at the moment of its signature as a plank of salvation will, in fact, lead to Tsimiaro and his people a new servitude. According to the historian Micheline Rasoamiaramanana (International Colloquium of History from July 27 to August 1, 1987 in Antsiranana), the (French) authorities of Nosy Be have to manage to sign treaties with all the princes of North and North-West of Madagascar who refuse merina domination, to set up a local army. Commanded by some French officers, “this one would march towards the interior of the country in order to seize, in the name of France, the Imerina and all the eastern coast of Cap d’Ambre at Fort-Dauphin.”
    If Tsimiaro is to give up a rapid and far-reaching action likely to permanently oust the conquerors of the Central Highlands, it is no longer possible for him to renounce the realization of his project. It will therefore reconnect with the usual tactics of harassment and raid against foreigners, Merina or Europeans, creating a permanent climate of insecurity in the country.
    “Considering the adjacent islands as bases of departure, the king and Antankarana constantly carry out the offensive. Taking advantage of the mediocrity of the Merina logistics, they launched in 1842 an expedition against the garrison of Hiarana, the main commercial port of the region, from three camps. What causes the death of those who are sent against the assailants, the fahavalo, that is to say of the manamboninahitra (officers) of 9, 8 and 7 honors and soldiers. “
    In 1844-1845, Tsimiaro controlled virtually the entire area north of Antongil Bay by troops estimated at 6,000 individuals from Nosy Be, Nosy Faly and Nosy Mitsio. They make it difficult, if not impossible, for communications between the garrisons and the government of Antananarivo, itself engaged in a conflict against the French and the English in Toamasina.
    At that time, the most important operations against the garrisons of Ambohimarina were typical of the methods used, the location of the fort at the top of a mountain very difficult to climb, making it practically impregnable. “As it depends for its supply of the flat country and its surroundings, the Antankarana attack, first of all, the resources, objects of robbery and systematic plundering: stealing of cattle, catches of crops, rice and cassava, Abduction of persons. In 1845, these practices led to a real famine and forced the governor of the garrison, Rakoto, to pay the 100 dollars (500 francs) of reserve for the purchase of food for the soldiers. The attackers invested the area and mounted small expeditions with 10 to 20 people or 15 canoes when they arrived by sea. “
    The direct attack of the fort defended by five guns during the second phase of the operations, provoked a response from the besieged and a pursuit of the Antankarana which ends with the complete rout of the Merina.
    “Besides individual weapons, they have only one field gun,
    Exploded in full action, resulting in the loss of 132 men; Completely disorganized by the loss of the cannon, the merina troops lose 64 men, and the others owe their salvation only to the timely presence of a forest where they can take refuge. “
    For the Merina derided by their enemies, the overall results of these operations resulted in the loss of 680 oxen and highlighted the inadequacy of the troops, despite the assistance provided by the garrisons of Vohijanahary and Maroantsetra. This deficiency, which remains one of the permanent weaknesses of the merina garrisons during the nineteenth century, is “due to the quasi-insufficiency of the succession and the importance of the desertions”. After the attacks on the garrison of Ambohimarina, the number of soldiers is 109, valid for 45 deserters, a high figure because there is neither salary nor bonus in charge.
    The Merina are not the only targets of Tsimiaro and his men who desolate the whole country and even attack the property of the Europeans, especially the settlers. If the French authorities of Nosy Be can not do anything, the whites of Vohémar (a dozen) threaten to put themselves at the head of the Hovas (Les Merina) in order to obtain reparation and to check repeated thefts and persecutions. Neither the Merina nor the French did not intend to renounce the treaty already signed, and reacted to curb the warlike ardor of the Antankarana. In 1845, the Colonial leadership threatened Tsimiaro with “the withdrawal of the pension that the French State allocates to him” if it persists in its bellicose attitude, and the government merina strengthens the garrison of Ambohimarina.


    Given the difficulties facing King Tsimiaro, historian Micheline Rasoamiaramanana wonders what attitude, what policy Tsimiharo will adopt (International Colloquium of History from 27 July to 1 August 1987 in Antsiranana). Because he considers the presence of the merina conquerors in the land of Ankara as a violation of the soil of the ancestors and an attack on his dignity as king, he always feeds and nourishes them “a deep hatred and a strong desire for vengeance” (Journey to the West Coast of Madagascar of 1842 and 1843, Guillain).
    However, having only a few assets at the beginning, it needs opportunities to depart from a cautious attitude of conciliation dictated by circumstances. These are presented thanks to the Merina themselves, “whose vexations and arbitrary acts end up unanimously against them” (Micheline Rasoamiaramanana).
    From 1835, Tsimiaro took advantage of a situation which temporarily puts a mute to internal dissensions to open hostilities, renewing the attempts already made by his father, Tsialana I, to drive out the invaders. He even succeeded in relocating a large part of the country under his authority, but soon came up against problems already known to his predecessor. “The lack of cohesion of the insurgent princes and the superiority of the Merina transformed his initiative into a rash act, and forced him to abandon the Grande Terre and its natural fort located in the caves of the karst massif known as Trou de Tsimiaro To the small archipelago of the Mitsio Islands with 5,000 of its faithful in 1840. “
    He then made a double observation: on the one hand, the insufficiency of his means of action against the pressure of enemies determined to crush him, and on the other hand, the fragility of the agreements between the princes. This makes him understand the need to find other solutions to avoid falling into the same mistakes and experiencing the same failures as in the past. Drawing the lessons of experience, the King sees in the search for external support, the only possible outcome to the resolution of his immediate difficulties. Everything brings him closer to the Sultan of Zanzibar. “Apart from personal affinities, the similarity of political structures makes such a move logical. However, the failure of this rapprochement forced him to make openings to the governor of the island Bourbon. By the treaty of the 5th of March, 1841, he ceded all his territories, the country of Ankara and the islands which depended thereon, with the right for the Antankarana to be regarded as French subjects and to be treated as such. The surrender was also accompanied by a decision granting the King a monthly pension of 100 francs.
    But what exactly does he expect from the French? An active aid to be able to return to the Great Earth, to re-establish its authority and to drive away the invaders. But his hope quickly became a disappointment because of the neutrality of the French army, in spite of his urgent request. Interpreting this neutrality as a deliberate violation of the agreement, Tsimiaro sends his brother Tsiambany to the governor of Mauritius early in 1843, making the surrender to England of the whole northern part of Madagascar, including Nosy Be, Island ceded to the French by the queen sakalava Tsiomeko, and claimed by the king as belonging to him.
    “The refusal to oppose the proposal of the emissary of Tsimiharo, in spite of the urbanity shown towards him, is revealing of a fact which had hitherto escaped the King; The desire of a Western country not to engage in a case where another Western country already has the anticipation. The attitude of the king and the governor of Mauritius
    Revealing also the fundamental divergence of conception between the society which privileges the oral and another which attaches value only to the writing, and which is ready to make reason listen to anyone who risks treating it lightly.
    Thus, a treaty perceived at the moment of its signature as a plan of salvation will in reality lead to a new servitude.


    In a study made from documents dated between 1832 and 1882, a historian who is interested in Antakarana royalty, discusses the relations of King Tsimiaro with the Merina and the French. It was during the International Colloquium on History from 27 July to 1 August 1987 in Antsiranana that it produced the results of its study.
    According to Micheline Rasoamiaramanana, King Tsimiaro succeeded his father Tsialana I in 1832, but the power he inherited, “is far from easy to assume.” Since the end of the seventeenth century, the region has been marked by political upheavals, invasions from the Sakalava country and intestine wars. The exercise of supreme authority, obtained by agreement or expulsion, can only engender persistent hatred and rivalry. “When one adds to these difficulties the fragmentation of the kingdom as a result of successive divisions, the problems of territorial jurisdiction resulting therefrom, and especially the invasion of the country by troops from elsewhere during the first half of the nineteenth century, The delicacy not to say the complexity of a task strewn with pitfalls. “
    The eldest son of Tsialana, a grandson of Lamboeny, who was a contemporary of Benyowski, Tsimiaro, then thirty years old, belongs to the so-called Ambatoharanana antankarana royal branch. But he inherits a power that his father snatched from his uncle Boanahajy or Rabona in 1809, with the help of his cousin Andrianjalahy. His father also bequeathed to him a kingdom strongly weakened since the Merina eruption in 1823, and the obligation for the Tsialana king to recognize their sovereignty. “It was not, however, for want of trying to repress the invaders and tried more than once to shake off their yoke.” He unfortunately had to rely on subjects which, according to Guillain, were ready to “abandon him at the least Reversals and the impotence, even the inertia of his peers and allies “(Journey to the West Coast of Madagascar of 1842 and 1843).
    Faced with this unlikely situation, the king had certain assets at the time of his accession. As it is the symbol and the guarantor of continuity, the Ampanjakabe (great king) Tsimiaro benefits from a prejudice favorable to the majority of Antankarana. “He also possesses qualities of intelligence, energy and bravery which do not make any hope of returning to the old order of things vain. “. If he knows how to use them “to revive the courage of the most hesitant and rally the adversaries.”
    Merina conquerors certainly inspire fear, but “this does not mask their weaknesses due to their limited number, their isolation in garrisons distant several hundred kilometers from their starting base, the lack of real support in Awaiting the aid sent by the other garrisons, or by the central government of Antananarivo. ” On the other hand, the Antankarana have the advantage of the terrain, because their country makes mountains and caves, offers many natural shelters. “Which can possibly facilitate the clashes and the war of attrition. “
    In order to take advantage of these advantages, the king must thus succeed in reducing internal dissensions in order to be able to oppose a concerted resistance to the strength and cohesion of the invaders. Determined to realize the unification of the country under their own leadership, and to fight against any inclination to resist, the latter have also, since the opening of their kingdom to the West, also a trained army trained in Shooting, obedience and tactical elements. In front of them, the Antankarana still have to resort to the general mobilization of able-bodied men in case of conflict, that is to say to “a crowd little organized and badly armed”.
    Certainly, the presence of several Islamic centuries of Sa’ahilis culture on the northern coasts of Madagascar and along the eastern coast of Africa eventually created affinities and weaving ties with the royal family antankarana. “But the more mercantile and warlike activities of these Islamized people, limit their role to that of advisers and their support to support Especially moral. Finally, the designation by the Merina of Prince Bemazava Tsimandroho to command the population gathered around the garrison of Hiarana (Vohimaro) can not Failure to pose a problem of authority. By granting precedence to one prince over another for services rendered, the Merina inaugurated a policy of domination which proved its worth, since their intervention contributed to complicate the relations between the different princes, and especially to strengthen their domination.


    At the end of December 1898, the insurrection was dislocated and dispersed in the central part of the kingdoms of the Northwest. In the littoral region, it lacks cohesion and thus escapes before the batterings of the group of Captain Laverdure.
    In the Sambirano, where he has been absent for a month, no act of hostility is reported.
    “There was a general malaise in the population. It is a state analogous to that which existed in Imerina, from the beginning of the restoration of order after the insurrection. The means that have been so successful there are ideal to be applied here “(Ambalavelona or the anticolonial insurgency in the north-west of Madagascar in 1898 by Cassam Aly Ndandahizara).
    On 23 December the commander of the annexed Circle of the Great Earth finished organizing the province of Analalava in six sectors and submitted this measure to the general-in-chief, who made no change. All he had to do was to unite these divisions into military sectors, which were immediately provided with a responsible leader.
    “Patrols and reconnaissances had to travel the country, reassure and rally the people, protect the villages that were rebuilding, avoid depredations and ensure a constant connection with neighboring posts. “
    Also on 23 December, a postal service was organized to ensure regular communications with all sector centers. And on the 30th of the same month, first-degree courts are organized in each sector, instructions given to disarm the population.
    A few months later, Lamolle, a battalion commander, drew up a report on the situation in the annexed Circle of the Great Earth in March-July 1899.
    “The military situation of the Cercle annex is satisfactory. The Dzaokely band, which had its headquarters at Amboromalandy in the Ambatoaranana area, was dispersed on 16 March by Lieutenant Penfentenyio de Kervereguin. It was the last refuge of the remnants of the rebellion, 550 oxen were kidnapped. They will be returned to their owners after investigation. “
    In the area of ​​Ambatoaranana, 650 rifles and 200 sagaies are recovered in a short time thanks to the zeal of the lieutenant of Penfentenyo and the second lieutenant Sheer that the king Tsialana has seconded in this operation. This will continue until complete disarmament of the population. In the area of ​​Sambirano, Lieutenant Bailly-Masson receives rebels 30 rifles including a model 74, and 276 sagaies.
    Captain Laverdure, commanding officer of the Circle, went on a tour in the north of his riding and found that “everything was quiet now.” It remains the
    20 of April in Ankifiny from where he returns of Penfentenyo who must fulfill the functions of Chancellor of the Circle.
    On 24 May, he captured the rebel leaders Dzaokely, Mataopiso, Angalisy and Soatra. He thus remains to catch up the leader Karidza in flight. In July, the creation of two new posts – one in Ambakirano on the top of Mananjeba, between Ambatoaranana and Beramanja, the other in the south of Amboromalandy – will help to completely restore calm in this part of the Circle. Some “pillagers” are still hiding there, as is proved by some skirmishes around Beramanja.
    The postal service and the judicial system are established in the Cercle annex and the administrative organization is being revised to be final. And if the order is re-established in the Circle, the surveillance of the territory remains delicate. “It has to dominate the occult power of the kings of the country, its population is independent, the country having never had military occupation. The natives possess a large quantity of weapons which they easily procured before the French conquest at Nosy Be and Diego-Suarez. “
    Certainly, the people of Queen Binao have handed over 450 rifles of various models and more
    500 sagaies to Captain Jourdan, but those of King Tsiaraso and especially of King Tsialana, must hold a greater number.
    “The complete security of this country will therefore be truly guaranteed only when the commander of the annexed Circle has returned these weapons. It will not be easy because the Antankarana are keen to parade.


    King of the Sakalava bemazava of Sambirano (1895-1919), son of King Monja, Tsiaraso I participates in the Second Franco-Hova War.
    He has many reasons to feel anger against the French. After the annexation
    Of 1896, contrary to his expectation, he witnessed the raid by the settlers of the lands of his kingdom.
    What causes the emigration of the Sakalava with their cattle to other horizons,
    Especially in height, sometimes already occupied. His sister is also kidnapped by militia Frontin of Ambalavelona who treats her as a commoner. To top it all, taxes no longer return to his kingdom, and in passing to Nosy Be on July 8, 1898, shortly before the revolt broke out, “General Gallieni threatened him with dismissal if he did not execute the Instructions “(Ambalavelona or the anticolonial insurrection in the north-west of Madagascar in 1898 of Cassam Aly Ndandahizara).
    On October 25, 1898, the insurrection known by the Sakalava under the name of “Ady t’Ambalavelona” broke out, during which the militia guards and the settlers of Sambirano and Ankaizina were massacred. Tsiaraso I, Tsialana II and Queen Binao, the three sovereigns of the region in full uprising, are placed under house arrest under the
    Captain Laverdure at Ambato.
    In 1900, they were taken to Antananarivo, near General Pennequin, who took over the duties of General Gallieni on leave. It was then decided, in essence, that the lands allotted to the settlers would be limited to those included in the perimeter of colonization. Tsiraso I will bear the posthumous name of Andriamandilatrarivo, the prince-who-surpasses-the-thousand.
    Tsialana II, succeeds his father Tsimiaro I on the throne (1883-1922), in the kingdom antankarana entirely under the sovereignty merina, except the archipelago Mitsio where it resides. He also participated in all Franco-Hova hostilities (1883-1885, 1894-1895) which took place in his kingdom, directing his troops on all fronts. But later, disappointed and dissatisfied with the French, he also took part in the insurrection of the Sambirano by sending troops under the command of Djaokely. His brother Mamba, accused of being in the pay of the Merina, was exiled by the French on Île Sainte-Marie where he died in 1898.
    Tsialana II left Nosy Mitsio in 1896 to settle in the present village of Ambatoaranana to reorganize a completely abused kingdom for more than fifty years. He is the first king antankarana buried according to the Muslim rites. He is now posthumously (fitahia) the name of Andriamagnorogniarivo, the prince-rebutisseur-des-mille.
    Binao, the queen of Sakalava bemihisatra (1880-1923) is still a child when she succeeds her mother Safy Mozongo, the younger daughter of Andriantsoly. She reigns under the regency of her father Bebaka. He was then appointed governor, a position he left on March 18, 1907. As for his half-brother Amada, he was appointed deputy governor by decision of the chief of the province of Nosy Be.
    Leaving the islet Kisomamy which was the residence of his mother, Binao settles to Ampasimena on the Great Earth. Like the other two kings of the Northwest, it also participates in the two Franco-Merina conflicts, alongside the French, supplying men to reinforce the French troops on the coast of their kingdoms. And like her peers, dissatisfied, she entrusts to Mataopiso the direction of the forces sakalava bemihisatra during the insurrection against the colonists.
    “After the agreement of Antananarivo in 1900, having no children, intelligent woman and
    Generous, she was able to benefit her relatives by granting concessions. When she died, she was buried in Tsinjoarivo, in the royal cemetery (Mahabo) of Nosy Komba, which violated her will. However, in 1941, in order to respect his desire, his remains
    Mortuary are transferred (magnaingafia) to Manongarivo, on the island of Nosy Be.
    His posthumous name is Andriamanjakamboniarivo, the-princess-who-reigns-above-the-thousand.


    The day of Wednesday, a splendid day for wars, was chosen by the three sovereigns of northwestern Madagascar, Tsialana II, Tsiaraso I and Binao, to raise their peoples against the oppression of the French colonists, protected by the French local authorities . On October 26, 1898, the insurrection began with the attack on the Marotolana post in Upper Sambirano.
    The insurgents of the region headed for the village of Ambalavelona. There they make the junction with the troops of Djaokely, parties at the same time of Amboromalandy-Anaborano, in the district of Ambilobe. They raid all the whites who are on their way.
    Mataopiso, which leads the Sakalava d’Ampasimena, on its side, ascends the peninsula of Anorotsangana, sweeping ashore the settlers who settled there. It reaches the regions of Ankaramy, Maromandia, Andranosamonta. The rebellion affects Bealanana, in the region of Ankaizina. The insurgents are preparing to invade the region of Vohémar, but they are outstripped by the Senegalese troops.
    “All the Sambirano was burning, especially the village of Ambalavelona, ​​the chief post of the militia, attacked several times. That is why, in their oral history, the Sakalava designate this insurrection by ady t’Ambalavelona “, the war of Ambalavelona (” Ambalavelona or the anticolonial insurrection in the Northwest of Madagascar in 1898 “of Cassam Aly Ndandahizara) .
    The French authorities of Nosy Be and Analalava are convinced that Tsiaraso, Tsialana II and Binao are behind the uprising. In particular the king of the Sakalava of Sambirano since the central nucleus of the rebellion is in his kingdom.
    Thus Lamolle, chief of the province of Analalava, suggests to General Joseph Simon Gallieni to abolish the royalties of the Northwest. “The Antankarana and the Sakalava were not necessary for the expansion of colonization by their fallacious characters,” he insists.
    He also proposes to withdraw their authorities and replace them with civil servants from the people who will carry out their administrative functions. A proposal that is not a novelty since Gallieni already has it in mind since his passage to Nosy Be, but he hesitates to apply them in the immediate future.
    On April 23, 1899, the governor general left on leave, and General Pennequin, a well-known figure of the Sakalava and the Antankarana, assumed the interim. He knows very well that the antankarana and sakalava warriors helped the French to conquer the whole of Madagascar, especially against the Merina. He is “the man of the circumstance to save the three kingdoms during his second stay in Madagascar”.
    General Gallieni, on his return from his absence, arrived at Ambato-Boeny on the 21st of June, 1901, accompanied by Captain Laverdure, master of the place. It is here that many prisoners, leaders of the insurrection, are kept, despite the general amnesty decision taken at Mahajanga on 3 July 1900. The Governor General confirms this measure of clemency.
    Indeed, “for General Gallieni, to govern and build the colonization of Madagascar, being with hypocrites was not the right solution. It was necessary to use all the forces involved, therefore to reconcile with the representatives of all the tribes and to use them. It was absolutely necessary to apply the policy of the races, that is to say to govern through the originals of each region “.
    He began his new policy by repatriating the body of former Prime Minister Rainilaiarivony, who died in Algiers, who arrived in September 1900 and was buried on 4 October in the family Mausoleum. He continues by pardoning Rabozaka and his co-exiles in La Réunion who find Madagascar, their homeland, and freedom.


    The position of Marotolona reconstituted on November 8, 1898, Captain Laverdure continues his way. “On November 10 he found the charred skeleton of the interpreter of the guard Ettori and he received some information about the attack on the post and the desertion of eight militia from the beginning of the attack” (report of the battalion commander Lamolle) .
    The next day he set out to find traces of Ettori, but all the villages crossed were abandoned in a precipitate flight, and on 12 November the reconnaissance returned to Marotolana.
    Finally, on November 13th, hearing that Ambalavelona had been attacked, Captain Laverdure decided to return and designated Lieutenant Sautel to command Marotolana.
    Indeed, on the night of November 7 to 8, Lieutenant Gautier, deputy commander of the Cercle annex, arrived at Ambalavelona. In the early morning, “two hundred Marofelana, of which about thirty armed with rifles, and others with spears, attacked the post after setting fire to the village. They shouted: Vazaha! Vazaha! “
    The lieutenant repulsed the attack and pursued the fugitives, who abandoned two of their own, one armed with a gun, shot down with a revolver. Five other bodies are carried away.
    The post is again attacked on 8 November, in the early afternoon, “by one hundred and fifty Marofelana divided into three groups, but without much damage”.
    Captain Laverdure then began to crisscross the region to reconnoitre.
    In the dark night of November 22, the post of Ambalavelona commanded by the ensign Calemard, is attacked again. However, it is difficult to follow the traces of the aggressors, but a skirmisher is mortally wounded.
    From 24 to 27 November, captain Laverdure received a gun of 37, ten mules and a 80m / m mountain piece. Armed with his new armament, he is preparing to march in concert with the commander of Bealanana, whose post has been removed by the insurrection which is gaining the whole region of the Ankaizina.
    On the 28th of November he went to Bealanana with officers, non-commissioned officers, eighty-three riflemen, twenty-two militiamen, and fourteen artillerymen.
    On November 29, the group arrived at Marotolona, ​​although the artillery could withstand great difficulties. The inhabitants of this large village are returning in considerable numbers. “Congratulated and reassured by the captain, they make a commitment to go and get their friends to get them back. On the 30th we left Marotolona. “
    After a march made difficult by the rain and the cold in the high mountains, Captain Laverdure’s group arrived on the morning of the 5th, in view of Bealanana. An immense marsh separates them from the city.
    “No column was in sight and no news was received from the Mondon group dispatched before. A few cannon shots were fired at the village. They did not determine any apparent movement. “
    The group decides to cross the marsh that separates it from the village with care. When he entered it, he found it completely abandoned, half of the huts burned: everything denoted a precipitate flight.
    From the post there is nothing left. There are only cartridge cases 74 and piston rifles as well as militia effects. “To the south-west of the village a post had been found on the top of which was attached a European helmet and an iron briefcase containing various objects belonging to the Guard Gouraud!


    The chief of the Lamolle battalion, in one of his reports, evokes the insurrection of the north-west of Madagascar. As it was written earlier, it all began on Wednesday, October 26, 1898, a splendid day, by the attack of the Marotolana militia post by “a band of rebels.” The fight lasts all night and finally, the attackers move away from the place of combat.
    Indeed, in the presence of the increasing number of rebels, the guard Ettori destroyed his post and tried to return to the coast. But in his flight he is attacked. He lost his life in the case and several of his militiamen.
    The insurgents then headed for Ambalavelona, ​​the headquarters of the administrative center of the Great Earth and post of militia. The clerk Frontin and two Europeans who are with him are massacred and the post falls into the power of the insurgents. Remember that Frontin had ravished Boenizary to her husband, the elder sister of King Tsiaraso I, before sending her back to her brother in a state unworthy of her rank.
    The movement of insurrection became widespread in Lower Sambirano, and the settlers, who could not escape in time, were killed. Their settlements and plantations are also sacked and destroyed from top to bottom.
    As soon as the news of these troubles reached Nosy Be, immediate measures were taken to rescue the Europeans and to try to restore order.
    Immediately, the “Fabert” landed his company divided into two groups: one must punish all disorder at Nosy Be, the other is directed on the Great Earth, direction Ambalavelona. The cruiser then went to Mahajanga to announce the news to Antananarivo. Meanwhile, the administrator Chauvot goes with some militiamen to Marotolana to try to rescue the guard Ettori, of which he does not find the trace.
    As soon as he was aware of this movement, General-in-Chief Gallieni formed a Senegalese marching company, commanded by Captain Laverdure, at Mahajanga, and ordered his speedy transport to the Great Land. The part of the province of Nosy Be on the Great Earth is erected as an annexed Circle, commanded by Captain Laverdure. The latter thus has all the powers to accomplish its mission of restoring order and locating the movement.
    Embarked at Mahajanga on 2 November by the “Pourvoyeur”, Captain Laverdure’s detachment of three officers, five non-commissioned officers, one hundred and forty four Senegalese and forty two militiamen, landed at Ankifiny the following day. A section is directed on Ambalavelona to relieve the sailors of the “Fabert”.
    “Chauvot and King Tsiaraso had joined Ankifiny with the sailors. Captain Laverdure received the visit of King Tsiaraso, who furnished him with the porters who were asked for, but who gave him no information. “
    The officer, therefore, was groping for the next day in the country. King Tsiaraso and his brother
    Accompanied him on his march on Ambalavelona, ​​but on his way all the villages were already abandoned. At Ambalavelona, ​​Laverdure meets a few locals and some Indians who keep their shops. Despite the defective situation of this point, he left a post headed by Sergeant Berthier to make it the temporary headquarters of the Cercle annex. He sought to obtain some information from the prisoners confined in that post, but to no avail.
    Captain Laverdure continued his pursuit towards the interior of the country. “The village of Benavony was abandoned, but all the resources were intact. To avoid depredation, he bivouacked with his troops to avoid any act of pillage. “
    On November 7, the group crosses the villages Ambolobozy and Malilio, they are also abandoned.
    “During the day, we met a group of people from Benavony (the former village washed away later by a flood) with the head of this village, who was reassured and that the absentees were asked to return. “
    On 8 November the group arrived in Marotolona. The village is completely abandoned, but the huts are intact. A cluster of ash and burnt wood is on the ground. On the following day, the post was reconstituted with a sergeant, thirty sharpshooters and ten militiamen.


    Paul Locamus, the largest settler in northwestern Madagascar, became known as soon as the French began to take possession of the bay of Diego-Suarez. In fact, he created the Société de grapeerie and built in 1889 the Antongombato canning factory, later bought by Rochefortaise. He then turned to Nosy Be in 1893 to obtain the granting of several concessions to Andavakoto, Ambatoloaka, Andilana, Nosy Sakatia …, for a project to construct another factory to manufacture canned beef. But his plan lasted until the annexation of Madagascar in 1896.
    Dr. Lafage, the administrator and mayor of Nosy Be, dissuaded him from this: “The establishment of a canning factory in Nosy Be was appropriate four years ago, when Madagascar was not French land And would have met with all sorts of dangers and dangers to establish it on the coast. But today it is no longer the same; There are numerous points on the north-west coast which would lend themselves wonderfully to such an undertaking. In creating the factory at Nosy Be, the general expenses would be singularly increased by the transport of cattle in the island, by maintenance, and even by the creation of the necessary pastures, which ought to be maintained in order to have always what Work 200 heads per day. “
    From that day on, Paul Locamus’ men roamed the area indicated by Dr. Lafage, driving the Sakalava away from their land and pasture. “They were terrorizing them. The administrators, chiefs of the regions, made the deaf to the complaints of King Tsiaraso and Queen Binao. The Sakalava continued to emigrate to the mountains by taking their herds of oxen “(Ambalavelona or the anticolonial insurgency in the north-west of Madagascar in 1898 by Cassam Aly Ndandahizara).
    In fact, the Antankarana and the Sakalava understand that they are no longer home and that their lands, “these heritages inherited from their ancestors”, no longer belong to them.
    Two years later, Paul Locamus obtained the whole of the peninsula of Anorotsangana, including the kingdom of Binao, queen of the Sakalava bemihisatra, and part of that of Tsiaraso, king of the sakalava bemazava.
    On July 9, 1899, President Émile Loubet decreed: “Art. 1: In order to colonize and develop the State lands of Madagascar, Mr. Paul Locamus is authorized – subject to the rights of third parties The promulgation of the present decree in the Colony and the rights of the natives as defined in article 5 above, to purchase in the territories hereinafter designated, at a price of 2 francs / ha and under the conditions laid down by The decree of the Governor-General of Madagascar and Dependencies dated 10 February 1899 concerning the concession of State land (…) two hundred thousand hectares of land, namely:
    • one hundred thousand hectares to be chosen as a maximum and in one piece in the Bavatobe peninsula, northwest coast of Madagascar, among the limited land, on the south by the Bevondra river; To the south-east and east by the Djangoa river; To the north-east by the bay of Ampasindava; North-west, west and south by the Mozambique Canal;
    • two hectares of land on the island of Nosy Komba for the installation of a sanatorium.
    The complement of two hundred thousand hectares, including half pasture by four lots of at least twenty five thousand hectares each, (will be chosen) from available land in the northwestern and western regions of Madagascar.