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Madagascar Forums The Transformation of Antananarivo

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  • #472
    Madagascar
    Keymaster

    Between 1860 and 1895, Antananarivo saw by its transformation, the results of thirty years of efforts. Its dominant feature is the large number of religious edifices.
    “Whatever direction you turn to, when you are at the top of the hill on which the city is built, the churches stand out and give the impression of a people profoundly religious in appearance” (Pool, architect ).
    However, the development of roads and town planning does not go hand in hand with the
    System of architecture and constructions. The streets are non-existent and only the paths and the potholes allow to communicate from one quarter to the other and to circulate from one building to the other. “Despite the royal orders, no maintenance, no cleaning is done by the inhabitants, whose social education remains to be made” (anonymous columnist of the 1950s).
    Thus, garbage, piles of manure and cloaca arise at every step. No public service works for cleanliness or hygiene. Plague, typhus, smallpox and malaria are constant and considerable havoc. Dr Davidson, the first European doctor
    Arrived in 1861, opened a dispensary which gave 5 to 6,000 consultations, year after year. Some doctors who depend on the London Mission, the Edinburgh Mission, the Norwegian Mission or the Catholic Mission come as reinforcements, can not do the job. “The first hospital worthy of mention, that of Soavinandriana inaugurated in 1890,
    Hospitalised 1,100 patients until the arrival of the soldiers of the French conquest who found there first aid. “
    A paved road is established between the Rova and the place of Andohalo, as well as a small stretch at the descent of Ambatovinaky. A kilometre of roads is also regularised. But we leave it at that.
    Nevertheless, very great changes are taking place in the condition of the inhabitants.
    “The remarkable transformations in general relate to the extreme ease with which the Imperinian population adopts, in the material order, any new way of being, lodging, or nourishment. “
    In matters of dress, the desire to be at the level of the European models is favored by the missionaries. “The zeal of the catechumens is evaluated, quite arbitrarily, at the more or less western pace of their dress. In 1857, the traveler Ida Pfeiffer pointed out that the ladies of the Court were trying to follow the fashion of Paris. From 1862, end of the reign of Ranavalona I, the city is flooded with tired suits, western clothing, outfit military uniforms.
    In December 1873, the English costume was imposed on the Court. “While a large part of the population goes about naked or shivering under coarse fibers, unless it is a light cotton fabric, a minority struts under hats with feathers, crinolines and embroidered clothes. We put shoes on the entrance to the temple, we remove them to get out … “
    With the evolution of clothing, other uses penetrate the capital. The importation of canvases, calico and Indian, which has developed since 1863, allows the population to dress, at least on Sundays, in a decent manner. In 1890, everyone knew the use of soap and used it. Workshops of jewelery and bimbeloterie open. At the Catholic Mission, women learn the finesse of lace and embroidery.
    While there are no European shops thirty years earlier, there are many that line the road that descends from Ambatonakanga to Antaninarenina. “In contact with foreigners, the population also learns to eat bread, cakes, milk, butter, coffee, tea, refined sugar and many other products previously ignored. “

    #475
    Madagascar
    Keymaster

    The cactus, “raketa” or “roy”, a thorny southern plant that gave its name to the Androy, was one of the instruments used by the French pacification forces to defeat the insurrection from 1896 to 1903.
    According to Raymond Decary in 1929 (The destruction of cactus by a cochineal in Madagascar: its economic and social consequences), this plant is used in more than one capacity in the Androy region. The population uses it as a hedge of protection of its possessions (huts, herds) since it builds its habitat in the midst of thorny forests.
    It is also used in feeding livestock. Burned, its leaves complete the herbs of the pasture, rare in these areas of drought. Green, they preserve the water to water the oxen very numerous and which make the wealth of the population. Raymond Decary also points out that even she feeds on the fruits of the cactus between August and February. Because of insufficient rainfall, food crops do not produce during this period.
    Because of this important place played by the cactus in the life of the population, the first action of the French forces of pacification in the Androy is to destroy this thorny to defeat the nationalist struggle.
    Yet, according to Jeanne Rasoanasy (Menalamba sy Tanindrazana), the French do not
    Still have neither products nor a cochineal that can destroy the “raketa” as they do in 1925. They simply oblige their prisoners to cut thorny forests. Thus, they can easily access all the villages and hamlets in which, according to them, hide the insurgents, while putting the population in difficulty in its search for food in times of lean.
    In 1899, the French troops penetrated to the south of Ambovombe, where the Sevohitse and the Maroalaka reside. From there, they intend to destroy the struggle throughout the Androy where the Menalamba will soon constitute an army led by Tsiseza and Titsy. Faced with the invasion of the pacifiers, Titsy pretended to bow. But in the meantime, he regroups men to chase the Vazaha. Tsiseza joined him with his army and settled along the shore
    Western region of Manombo. Titsy, for his part, is stationed on the other side. Soon their actions bear fruit and the Analavondrobe come to reinforce them.
    At first, peacekeepers preferred to ignore them to concentrate on building a garrison at Ambovombe. It is enough to encourage the Menalamba to dislodge them and several clashes between the two armies. At the same time, in spite of their incessant raids, the French are not able to seize the resistant Antandroy well carpet in their area that they know better than anyone else.
    May 1901 will see the most virulent battle between Menalamba and French near Ambovombe. Titsy led 1,500 men to carry out the assault on the French garrison. But they must withdraw, the weapons in presence being unbalanced: guns and sagaies against cannons.
    This does not discourage Titsy and his men whose ranks are fleshed out by the population of Ezila and Imokola in the northwest. In September, Titsy announced to the garrison chief that his followers and he refused to obey the whites’ orders, pay taxes, and make friends with them as long as they occupied the Androy. From that date, he harassed the luggage carriers of the French, military and civilian, and attacked the villages that would support them.
    Another battling battle is between Menalamba and the French peacekeepers in Ambondro, but they can not defeat the nationalists despite their strike force.
    Unfortunately, indiscretions allow the Vazaha to seize most of the Menalamba chiefs of the region. These arrests somewhat cool the resisters’ ardor. Moreover, the French impose a heavy tax on the possession of firearms and offer an alternative: pay or surrender. But the men of the South do not accept this defeat. The fight resumed in 1902 and spread. In 1903, it reached the region of Farafangana. The Antefasy, Antesaka, Antanosy, Tanala and Bara join the Antandroy and the battles are bloody, the Menalamba being ready to fight “until the final victory”. But their struggle was completely annihilated in 1906.

    #476
    Madagascar
    Keymaster

    The permanent museum of overseas France preserves the prestige of the International Exhibition of 1931. In the setting of a national park, the zoo and the old folk traditions attract a very large public.
    “It was necessary to show there, in several rooms available, a first accomplishment of
    Collaboration between official institutions and personalities or companies of private initiative, between the Administration, Art, Literature, Press and Economy, to retain the favor of the Metropolis that dispute so many worries, An art columnist from the Magazine of Madagascar “. The objective is that in Paris, one can see in this time preoccupied with future achievements, what offer, under the French leadership, “the gifts of one of the races of our Empire the most flexible to progress”.
    As soon as the general government was solicited by the curator of the Paris Museum, he responded promptly. The Economic Agency also produces aloalo, lamba and sakalava pottery, valiha, drums and canoes. The Museum also lends a collection of the most characteristic Lemurs of the Great Island.
    “From this first base was to be formed a warm gathering of works and actions, representations and contests, images and atmosphere, all this concert of care, vows, offerings and calls for a bright future Be an Exhibition. To the Malagasy products, standardization ensures a civil status that reassures, but to marry well to the European clientele, we must give them a dowry: advertising and a shimmering keychain of the most beautiful exotic colors, exhibitions! “
    The official consecration of this coordinated effort is given by the Minister of the Colonies, Louis Rollin, who presides over the inauguration of the Exhibition. At this event came the traveling scholars, so many sculptors and donors who had never left France, notorious writers, the charming intercolonial cosmos of administrators with their wives and children. “
    It is with eagerness that the visitors flock from a diorama to a jewel of minerals, enchanted by the variety of small stands, the scenic animation of various presentations of objects, the shimmering of Malagasy fabrics.
    According to the artistic columnist of the Magazine of Madagascar, as soon as the arrival of the minister Louis Rollin, all are enveloped by the music of the Malagasy choruses. “These chants (are) harmoniously exalted of shrill voices who bewitch the ear and the memory of a rhythmic incantation ceremonies for birth, circumcision, weddings or funerals rustic. For, as the chronicler explains, the curator wants the public to have not only the local color to which he is already accustomed, but accompanied by this local tone and his local because, he asks himself, “Madagascar is not It is above all not music “.
    The exhibition center brings together the winning numbers of the last Antananarivo Art Show. “The show has taken such a development that it can not be carried entirely.” Under the aegis of the General Government, the Heydman couple deploys a School of Applied Arts, which it radiates into basketwork and Esparto, lace and tapestry, watercolor and sculpture. The workshop leaves its students free and even cultivates their independence. That is to say, fantasy, “the inspirations that renew the invention of the traces of indigenous traditions, the malicious or sentimental naiveties of the races”.
    Thus, the School protects the artistic development of an “old razzeur of oxen” and makes the Bara Tsida, a laureate. Besides, all the beautiful ladies, the wives of the chiefs of the service of Antananarivo, ripped off his primitive-and not primary-statuettes of pugilists or oxen who clashed. “Just a lovely animal world full of frank and indigenous creation in ceramics and glassware urban delightful and humorous animal toys carved by the countrymen in the horn: these incomparable animals worthy of the most original fabulist were administering Elemír Bourges when we brought back from our first trips the samples bought for a few sous at Zoma. “
    Old lamps carved with a great archaic style in massive stone testify that these races are not only “awakened by a satirist and cuddly genius, but by a decorative feeling capable of majesty. “

    #477
    Madagascar
    Keymaster

    The Marseillais named Arnoux, an associate of the House of Rontonay de Bourbon, founded a coffee plantation and a sugar factory in Mahela, a few miles from Mananjary, in his name and that of the latter. Both cases are rapidly expanding. Arnoux died in 1828, shortly after Radama Ier.
    On the other hand, Napoleon de Lastelle, established a little higher up in Toamasina, associated himself with de Rontonay and took charge of a sugar factory, while his brother Charles de Lastelle was appointed to Mahela, Arnoux. And it is he who, according to some historians, would collect Jean Laborde who fails on the coast, and not his brother Napoleon. The latter is the first of the two Frenchmen who have the great honor not to be included in the general proscription which expels in 1845 all Europeans, both the English and the French. The second of these privileged ones is Jean Laborde.
    A little historical feedback is needed. The political situation in Madagascar is serious at the time. France’s relations with the Hova government have been, for a long time, the most tense. At that time Sir Robert Farquhar, the English Governor of Mauritius, was ordered by his Government not to consider Madagascar as part of the Establishments ceded by France to Great Britain by the Treaty of Paris of 1814, The general denomination of the Dependencies of the Ile de France, now Mauritius.
    He thus learned, with regret, the order given in March 1817 by the Viscount Dubouchage, French Minister of the Navy, to the governor of Bourbon to have to take possession of the French Establishments on the eastern coast of Madagascar. On October 15, 1818, Sylvain Roux resumed solemnly possession of Sainte-Marie that Queen Betty ceded to the Compagnie des Indes in 1750, and to Tintingue, on November 4th.
    But on April 13, 1822 Radama I proclaimed no cession of the territory that he had not ratified and sent a 3,000-strong expeditionary force commanded by Rafaralahy under the leadership of the Englishman James Hastie. Sylvain Roux can not prevent the Merina from taking Foulpointe and occupying the coast. He died shortly afterwards and was replaced by the captain of the genius Blevec.
    At the beginning of July 1823, the merina king went to Toamasina, at the head of 2,000 Voromahery, the royal sparrows, and arrived at Foulpointe accompanied by Jean René. There, solemnly, he tears and throws into the mud the monumental stone in which is enclosed a writing recording the taking of possession by the French of the east coast. In a great Kabary, in the presence of the Betsimisaraka and the English, he exclaims: “If anyone keeps the memory of this stone and yields an inch of land to the Vazaha who pretend to be masters of it, we deny it” (RP Callet , “Tantara ny Andriana”).
    The following month the troops of Radama plundered in the North all that the French possessed. In front of Sainte-Marie, they burnt the villages of Fondaraza and Tintingue, and the king, in a despatch dated August 4, 1823, intended for the commander of Sainte-Marie, claimed the exclusive sovereignty of all Madagascar. On July 27, 1828, Radama turns his back on 36 years. His main wife, the Princess Ramavo, becomes Queen under the name of Ranavalona I.
    A few years later, it issued tough anti-Vazaha measures. Then comes the case of Pinson. Installed in Sainte-Marie, the latter leaves this island to go to the bay of Antongil where he wants to settle. A heavy weather forced him to land on the Great Earth. The Hova, who happened to be there by chance, seized him, clasped him and led him before the chief of Fenoarivo. Immediately, the latter informed him that the next day a white man would be sold at the ordinary price of every slave. The neighbors of the neighborhood are contributing, buying the unfortunate, and warning the French commander of Sainte-Marie, who sends an officer without delay to protest against this violation of the law of nations.
    The matter is complicated. Six ships commanded by Captain Gourbeyre arrive, on 8 July 1829, in the harbor of Toamasina. By a letter dated July 14, he gives the governor of Ranavalona, ​​Andre Soa, a period of twenty days to recognize the rights of France. His silence would be considered a formal refusal.
    It was not until the 10th of October that three ships sank into Toamasina, three hundred yards from Fort Hova. The next day, the bombardment began and the French troops disembarked. Foulpointe and Pointe à Larrée are resumed.
    But the July revolution in France is just calling into question. The king recalled the warships and enjoined the governor of Bourbon not to speak of the question of sovereignty. It must content itself with settling the trade agreements between France and Madagascar.

    #478
    Madagascar
    Keymaster

    Their peregrination in the South Malagasy leads Raymond Decary and Urbain Faurec to the country of the Sakalava of the South, more exactly to the northeast of Maintirano. This is not far from the place where oil exploration surveys were undertaken in the first half of the twentieth century. The Tongobory dyke near Andrafiavelo pierced the Cretaceous sediments and formed over the plain, a hill of about sixty meters.
    When it cooled, the basalt cracked into vertical prismatic columns.
    “They recall the famous organ pipes of Espaly in the Massif Central. “Describe the two scientists.
    Samples of this rock, sent to the Museum of Natural History of Paris, are recognized by Alfred Lacroix as an abnormal type of Malagasy basalt known as “Sakalavite”. It is “a hyperstene moritic basalt resulting from the consolidation of a melted and effused magma.”
    The analysis carried out at the Laboratory of Mineralogy is reflected in a singular observation.
    “Contrary to what is observed in these terrestrial lavas, one finds among the feldspathic meteorites great analogies with the lava which is the subject of this note, I mean the howardites and the inks,” writes Alfred Lacroix In his Note to the Academy of Sciences.
    This unforeseen approximation is possible thanks to the microscope and the reagents. Thus, the small black and stony hill of Tongobory has become, from the lithological point of view, one of the most interesting scientific sites of the Great Island.
    “And all this does not make one think of the rockallite of the boreal seas, whose composition is close to that of the alkaline granites of the peninsula of Ampasimena, near Nosy Be”
    However, one of the main sights of the Sakalava country of Menabe is undoubtedly the silicified woods of the Morafenobe region.
    “Lying on the ground, they give from a distance a singular impression of columns of temples
    Killed by a cataclysm. There are some monstrous, one meter in diameter, with a length of about twenty meters. Giants overthrown and transformed into stone, they defy eternity! “
    According to Raymond Decary and Urbain Faurec, the analysis shows that fossil trees are formed by quartz or chalcedony. Most often, the fibrous texture clearly remembers the primitive woody origin. Sometimes samples are seen, in which the quartz is crystallized in a rosette. “They belong to the genus Sideroxylon. “
    These woods which are found throughout the Triassic region are undoubtedly floated.
    It is, indeed, remarkable that they are represented only by trunks and that these are never ramified.
    “Branches have been broken or destroyed during transport by currents, between the place of origin and that of deposit. “
    Bongalava is sometimes referred to as the location on which these subfossil forests lived. Yet they are of the triassic age. In fact, “their presence on the surface is due to the only erosion that caused the disappearance of the sands encasing them”.
    Besides, we rarely find “wood in place” in the sandstone. They exist, for example, in the banks which border the right bank of the Ranobe, downstream of the great waterfall of the river.

    #479
    Madagascar
    Keymaster

    During their journey in the South-West, Raymond Decary and Urbain Faurec pass on Nosy Ve, still in the Bay of Saint-Augustin. Measuring 1,500 meters long by 300 meters wide, the island is a low, sandy, grassy land surrounded by a coral reef, with no wells or fresh water. Its vegetation is composed only of thorny bushes and euphorbiaceae.
    Toliara, the capital of the south-west, is accessed by schooners and the nearby shore, by local boats.
    As early as the 16th century, Nosy Ve was a stopover point for ships traveling to India, and from 1690 to 1720 it was a point of departure for the Saint-Augustin forbanks.
    Later, in 1888, a vice-residence was created in Nosy Ve where European and Hindu traders set up their warehouses to escape the violence of the inhabitants of the coast.
    “Since 1897, the islet is uninhabited and is only frequented by vezo fishermen. Only a few graves remain in an old cemetery “(Raymond Decary and Urbain Faurec, during the first half of the 20th century).
    Not far from the historic bay of Saint-Augustin, about fifteen kilometers south of Toliara, the limestone hills border the coast. They hide in their thickness a subterranean stream that ends at the sea by four resurgences over a space of 200 meters.
    Two of them are inside caves dug in the rock. The one called the Pool has a partially collapsed vault and forms a sort of chasm; The other, known as Beloza, has more difficult access and is considered “fady” by local populations.
    A small lake at the bottom of the cavity flows into the depths of the limestones. Its water flows into the course which ends up in the Swimming Pool.
    Local belief does not fail to liven up this picturesque site of legendary beings. Thus Beloza is the home of the fairy of Sarandrano. She is a young woman of fair complexion, who always travels with a spear and is escorted by a goat. Pursued long ago by European sailors disembarked at Saint-Augustin, she took refuge in the cave. From thence it sends rain upon the men, fervent at its conquest, a hail of rocks, still visible at the entrance.
    Still in the same area, a beautiful ficus of the fig species of India but known as Multipliant or banyan constitutes a curiosity near Toliara. It is that of Miary, in the valley of Fiherenana.
    The tree alone constitutes a veritable grove that is no less than 60 to 70 meters in diameter. On all sides the roots of the air hang down like ropes to the ground. Others who have already penetrated the earth have grown and become large trunks themselves.
    “The original strain which is at the origin of this fertile progeny, perhaps, is dead, for it has now divided into twenty or so offspring. “
    One can understand that men have sometimes experienced a kind of religious fear in front of these strange fig trees which give rise, under their thick mysterious shadow, to roots descending from the highest branches like rigid and menacing serpents.
    This brings the two French scientists back to Lamartine and his “Poetic Harmonies and
    Religious “:
    “His arms that time multiplies
    Like a wrestler who falls back
    To get a better start,
    Throwing their elbows back,
    Recurve in the quarry
    To better carry the weight of the wind “.

    #480
    Madagascar
    Keymaster

    If a lord wants to free himself from the tutelage of his sovereign towards whom he has made his oath of allegiance in spite of himself, he is raising the people. It is divided into supporters and opponents (see previous note). But this kind of crime is often faded before the hour, because the fear or respect due to the king incites certain subjects to prevent it. Then the Lord and his followers are condemned to death for insurrection.
    But the business does not stop there, because such a massive execution is also the unique opportunity for anyone who has some account to settle with another, to succeed. It is enough to accuse him of being part of the rebels. For if in ancient times personal accounts are regulated in several ways, the most rapid, the safest, and the least expedient means is, without doubt, the slanderous accusation. Very often, Andrianampoinimerina must intervene so that it does not degenerate into genuine genocide. For knowing the attachment of his people, he can not believe that there are in his kingdom as many opponents of his sovereignty.
    “Stop the massacre,” he ordered. “Too many people hate each other and take the opportunity to take revenge. And to continue: “Moreover, their master is dead and I do not fight against a dead man.” Before concluding: “However, if I forgive, I do not forget anything. If there are still partisans of the traitor, let them also forget nothing. “
    Andrianampoinimerina has never hidden his confidence to defeat his enemies, strong
    Of her fetishes accompanied by their paraphernalia. Thus, when he went to war, he was preceded and followed by the royal idols. The merina sovereigns count twelve recognized as national fetishes – sacred figure – of which Kelimalaza is the most considered.
    “Although profoundly monotheistic, the ancient Malagasy professed, combined with the notion of a superior God, an animist cult complicated by ancestor worship and fetishism” (Regis Rajemisa-Raolison, historian). Originally, this belief was unknown. But it developed considerably from the seventeenth century, when the kings began to fight among themselves and needed a supernatural force to support them.
    Thus Kelimalaza was introduced in Imerina in the sixteenth century by a woman from the betsileo country, Rakalobe. She quickly became the first of the idols “for her alleged power to grant victory to war, to stop the hail …”, in short to perform miracles. In its time of glory, Kelimalaza has its sanctuary in the village of Ambohimanambola where “a true body of priests” have kept it. With the eleven other national idols, it was destroyed by fire, on September 8, 1869, by order of Ranavalona II, the first Madagascan Christian queen.
    This notion of natural or supernatural force is always put forward in every confrontation. It is especially sublimated in the legend of Ibotity where “the cascade of the less strong” is highlighted.
    The little Ibotity climbs on the branch of a tree. The wind blows, the branch breaks and Ibotity falls, breaking the leg. Then Ibotity concludes that the tree branch is very strong because it could break a leg. But the branch retorts that the wind is stronger because it has broken it.
    In turn, the wind is less strong than the hill which can stop it; The hill is less so than the rat which digs it; The rat is less so than the cat that kills it; The cat is less so than the rope which can tie it; The rope is less so than the fire capable of burning it; The fire is less so than the water which can extinguish it.
    And that does not stop there. The water is less strong than the canoe that passes over its back; The canoe is less so than the stone used to carve it; The stone is less so than the man who comes to work it; The man is less so than the sorcerer who casts a bad fate on him; the
    Sorcerer is less so than the tanguin which kills him; The tanguin is less than Zanahary which
    Administers it and gives it its power.
    Then, says legend, from this day on, Ibotity and all that exist recognize that Zanahary is the strongest and the only master of everything.
    Through this legend, it is said, the ancients conceived the various steps of the second causes by which one passes before arriving at the first cause.

    #481
    Madagascar
    Keymaster

    To carry out its objective of reunification of the Imerina, Andrianampoinimerina applies a strategy as singular as it is original. And this, in order to stimulate the warrior qualities of his men, but also to win the hearts of his enemies. No one has ever doubted his rigorous good sense, his great sense of judgment, his profound sense of justice and humanity.
    His first tactic consists in highlighting the fact that he was born on the first day of the moon of Alahamady of the year 1745 (), one day considered as violent. To be violent, the fate of Imboasalama is none the less loaded with happy augurs who announce his future greatness, like the great rulers who preceded him, such as Ralambo and Andriamasinavalona.
    His people welcome him, moreover, when he is placed on the throne of Ambohimanga, especially as he refers to the latter’s words. “I am what Andriamasinavalona has promised you, I am the descendant endowed with horns, I am the master of the Imerina, I am the king-of-the-heart of Merina” (Andrina am-poin’ny Merina) .
    His faith in his good fortune is based, moreover, on the order of succession established by his grandfather Andriambelomasina to prove that he is not a usurper. The great sovereign announced to his children before the Great of the kingdom that Andrianjafy, his eldest son, “will reign first”; Will succeed him Imboasalama, “the son of your sister”.
    We know how the story ends. Pushed by his wife, Andrianjafy wants to modify this decision by appointing as successor his own son; Dethroned, he must flee and his nephew reigns before the hour.
    Andrianampoinimerina also practices “lokanady”, a kind of motivation to incite his men to fight to conquer. This incentive, in fact, is addressed much more to their spouses than to the soldiers themselves.
    Indeed, if their husbands show bravery in battle, apart from the material advantages obtained, they are placed on a pedestal in society. While the wives of the “bad soldiers” are pointed at and reduced to the rank of simple maidservants. This excites the pride of these ladies, who do not fail to use cuddles and threats of separation to awaken the warlike spirit of their men.
    The great monarch, however, tolerates a “moment of cowardice”
    – which somewhere amounts to treason – if the soldier catches up with feats. Otherwise, he decides, “he loses wife and children who come back to me.”
    In all his expeditions, Andrianampoinimerina was accompanied by idols of the kingdom for the obvious purpose of victory, but also because he was preoccupied before any attack to seize the sacred fetishes of his enemies who “give them power and confidence in their Invincibility “. If it is a question of idols with happy virtues, he makes them his and ensures that they are well preserved and well respected. If not, he gives the order to destroy them.
    He showed great magnanimity and gave a good treatment to the kites and
    Lords who accept him at first as a sovereign, keeping them at the head of their fiefs with all the advantages that this entails. Moreover, he makes them “the children of Ambohimanga with all the honors that this entails”.
    If the lord refuses to be “his child”, he engages in the battle and after the victory he concludes by marrying either the wife or daughter of the vanquished and places her at the direction of the fief. This explains the “Twelve Hills to the Twelve Women”. And if these new spouses give him descendants, they inherit the fief. In the contrary case, he undertakes to appoint a lord among his courtiers.
    Sometimes the family and the people of the vanquished kings reluctantly accepted him as king and to avoid any impulse of insurrection, Andrianampoinimerina established settlers-soldiers from the Avaradrano, whom he called the “Voromahery”. It is the case for Ambohibeloma in the Mandiavato where it installs 800 men, the Valonjatolahy. It is the same in Ambohitrambo among the Tsimiamboholahy.

    #482
    Madagascar
    Keymaster

    To carry out its objective of reunification of the Imerina, Andrianampoinimerina applies a strategy as singular as it is original. And this, in order to stimulate the warrior qualities of his men, but also to win the hearts of his enemies. No one has ever doubted his rigorous good sense, his great sense of judgment, his profound sense of justice and humanity.
    His first tactic consists in highlighting the fact that he was born on the first day of the moon of Alahamady of the year 1745 (), one day considered as violent. To be violent, the fate of Imboasalama is none the less loaded with happy augurs who announce his future greatness, like the great rulers who preceded him, such as Ralambo and Andriamasinavalona.
    His people welcome him, moreover, when he is placed on the throne of Ambohimanga, especially as he refers to the latter’s words. “I am what Andriamasinavalona has promised you, I am the descendant endowed with horns, I am the master of the Imerina, I am the king-of-the-heart of Merina” (Andrina am-poin’ny Merina) .
    His faith in his good fortune is based, moreover, on the order of succession established by his grandfather Andriambelomasina to prove that he is not a usurper. The great sovereign announced to his children before the Great of the kingdom that Andrianjafy, his eldest son, “will reign first”; Will succeed him Imboasalama, “the son of your sister”.
    We know how the story ends. Pushed by his wife, Andrianjafy wants to modify this decision by appointing as successor his own son; Dethroned, he must flee and his nephew reigns before the hour.
    Andrianampoinimerina also practices “lokanady”, a kind of motivation to incite his men to fight to conquer. This incentive, in fact, is addressed much more to their spouses than to the soldiers themselves.
    Indeed, if their husbands show bravery in battle, apart from the material advantages obtained, they are placed on a pedestal in society. While the wives of the “bad soldiers” are pointed at and reduced to the rank of simple maidservants. This excites the pride of these ladies, who do not fail to use cuddles and threats of separation to awaken the warlike spirit of their men.
    The great monarch, however, tolerates a “moment of cowardice”
    – which somewhere amounts to treason – if the soldier catches up with feats. Otherwise, he decides, “he loses wife and children who come back to me.”
    In all his expeditions, Andrianampoinimerina was accompanied by idols of the kingdom for the obvious purpose of victory, but also because he was preoccupied before any attack to seize the sacred fetishes of his enemies who “give them power and confidence in their Invincibility “. If it is a question of idols with happy virtues, he makes them his and ensures that they are well preserved and well respected. If not, he gives the order to destroy them.
    He showed great magnanimity and gave a good treatment to the kites and
    Lords who accept him at first as a sovereign, keeping them at the head of their fiefs with all the advantages that this entails. Moreover, he makes them “the children of Ambohimanga with all the honors that this entails”.
    If the lord refuses to be “his child”, he engages in the battle and after the victory he concludes by marrying either the wife or daughter of the vanquished and places her at the direction of the fief. This explains the “Twelve Hills to the Twelve Women”. And if these new spouses give him descendants, they inherit the fief. In the contrary case, he undertakes to appoint a lord among his courtiers.
    Sometimes the family and the people of the vanquished kings reluctantly accepted him as king and to avoid any impulse of insurrection, Andrianampoinimerina established settlers-soldiers from the Avaradrano, whom he called the “Voromahery”. It is the case for Ambohibeloma in the Mandiavato where it installs 800 men, the Valonjatolahy. It is the same in Ambohitrambo among the Tsimiamboholahy.

    #483
    Madagascar
    Keymaster

    In 1941, Marshal Petain, president of the National Board of the French Legion of Combatants, appointed Lieutenant-Colonel of the Forgeot reserve and the former reserve captain, Father Poisson, respectively President and Vice-President of the Union Of the French Legion of Combatants.
    On March 30, veterans met in Antananarivo for the election of members of the regional committee. Before the vote, Colonel Forgeot wishes to make clear that he places “this assembly under the sign of the union that is urged on us by Marshal Petain”. And to deliver to the audience one of his last speeches: “I desire the union of all hearts, not exclusive, the grudges are dead with a past past; We must not maintain outdated hatreds, but practice a policy of appeasement. “
    Colonel Forgeot reinforces these remarks: “If you sew a comrade whom you would have looked at wrongly some time ago, because his opinions are different from yours, you will treat him today as when he was your niche neighbor in the trenches. He insists that the legion is not the fief of a party, it is open to “all goodwill fighters, firmly determined to remain French”.
    Lieutenant-Colonel Forgeot, in his turn, appoints Father Labrousse and Assolant as president and vice-president among the members of the Antananarivo Regional Union of the French Legion of Combatants.
    On 6 April at 8:15 am, in the presence of Governor General Yves-Léon Cayla and General Guillemet, there was a seizure of arms by the troops of the garrison in the presence of the Regional Union of Soviet Socialist Republics in Antananarivo. legionnaires. The first emphasizes above all the unfailing attachment to the ideal of the French legion which they display. “In order to consecrate this solemn oath, I place in your hands, with joy and pride, the flag which will henceforth group together under its folds all the legionaries of Madagascar. It symbolizes the ardent desire of the Legion to give all its strength to the work of national renovation undertaken and pursued by its illustrious and revered leader, Marshal Petain, twice the savior of France. “
    Governor General Cayla concludes by recalling that the sacred mission of the legionaries is to watch over the destinies of the country and wishing them to remain united around their flag in order and discipline.
    In his turn, Colonel Forgeot took the floor to recall the work accomplished by the President of the National Directory of the French Legion. The legionaries, “deeply grateful to the illustrious soldier, are firmly resolved to help him with all their might in the difficult task he has imposed on himself, and give themselves with all their soul to the sacred cause which he defends, Depends on the salvation of France. “
    After the flag is displayed, surrounded by its guard of honor, and the legionaries sing “La Marseillaise,” the parade of troops from the garrison and the native guard takes place, followed by scouts from France, Unionist scouts and Of gymnastic societies.
    All this happens in front of a very dense crowd which invades the tribunes and their approaches to “communicate in the same patriotic faith with those who are in the honor”. According to a chronicler present at Mahamasina, all of them remember the “beautiful words” spoken to the veterans of the Metropolis by General Laure, secretary of Marshal Petain.
    “… Make your will for the moral and social restoration of France and its empire into the blood of your children. Keep them ready to take the tool and the plow when they fall out of your hands exhausted by fatigue or by age. But for you as for the Marechal, this hour of rest has not struck. In the whole country you will remain on the breach to repair its ruins. Legionnaires, conscious of your national strength, use this force in the spirit of discipline and union that the Marshal recommends us, and wherever you appear, the clamor rises: Greetings to the Legion and Long live the France of tomorrow! “

    #484
    Madagascar
    Keymaster

    Begun in 1897, the construction of the municipal theater of Antsapanimahazo, to welcome both Malagasy and French troops, ends two years later. It is inaugurated on September 14, 1899. Its operation is entrusted to dealers who use it for one or two years, according to their possibilities. The concession, which is a privilege, is granted by a private treaty, agreed upon between the future operator and the administrator-mayor, with the approval of the Governor General in person. The treaty refers to the amount of security deposited by the concessionaire as well as the amount of the subsidy granted by the municipality.
    Dealers are often French who bring the actors from the metropolis, on their own and with the help of the subsidy of the municipality. For example,
    The first occupant is Charson’s troop, who was the director of the Theater des Folies Militaries of Andafiavaratra, “says archivist Razoharinoro-Randriamboavonjy. When Toamasina, who is their place of landing, begins to bring troops from France, she also sees her municipal theater. It is in this city that they acclimate and play first before joining the capital. Toamasina-Antananarivo travel expenses and return are the responsibility of the municipal administration of the capital.
    Razoharinoro-Randriamboavonjy quotes the Vaovao Frantsay Malagasy, an official propaganda organ which, in its delivery of September 15, 1899, sets forth the program of the Charson troupe.
    “Like most cities in Europe, Antananarivo is finally endowed with a theater where the Malagasy as well as the Europeans can also be entertained at the hours so long of the vigils. The French artists of the Charson troupe will give three performances a week, on Tuesdays, Thursdays and Saturdays, as well as a reduced-price morning on Sunday afternoons. The Malagasy, great lovers of shows, singing and music, will appreciate the consummate art of the artists of profession that they are given to see for the first time in Antananarivo … »
    “The municipal theater, which is a place of entertainment open to all, will admit the Malagasy dressed in the European style to the armchairs and the first seats. Those who want to attend the shows but will not have the means to dress like the Vazaha (sic), will have at a lower price, places from where they will see perfectly everything that will happen on the stage.
    Thus, Antsapanimahazo promises to offer “his public of Europeans and Malgaches who will have the means”, quality shows that Charson, director of the municipal theater for 1900 and 1901 A troupe that bears his name and where he is an actor.
    In 1902 Charletty succeeded him. He tries, with his troupe, to vary further his repertoire by inserting L’Arlésienne and Carmen, and by organizing “great concerts”.
    The third director of the theater, Louis Alix introduces, for his part, sessions of spiritism and hypnotism, in addition to the usual repertoire. He had the Daughter of the Regiment represented on the occasion of the festivities of July 14, 1903. “From 1903, Courteline appeared in the repertoire. “Alix also plays The Day and the Night, a three-act opera-bouffe, for which he calls on Emile Cools,” conductor of the principal theaters in Paris. ” The costumes and hairstyles also come from the French capital.
    Razoharinoro-Randriamboavonjy indicates that the composition of the successive troops at Antsapanimahazo since its opening is not homogeneous. This diversity is understood by the difficulties that the director of troop may encounter recruiting actors. “Recruitment which had to be done quite random meetings and sympathies. “
    She cites the example of the Charletty troupe: the first baritone of all kinds and the second singer of the first are from the theater of Agen; The operetta-comic opera premiere of Lyons; The second tenor of Lorient; The first bass from Brest; The comic of all kinds, of the Theater de la Gaite of Paris; The second comic, Cherbourg … Nevertheless the distance of their country favors their cohesion once in Antananarivo.

    #485
    Madagascar
    Keymaster

    As soon as he arrived in Madagascar on June 15, 1939, the governor general of Coppet announced the color: national defense for the French, work for the Malagasy in order to “preserve liberty”. At this time, Antananarivo with the facts of the world events, awaited this arrival with impatience. Thirty thousand people with a Malagasy majority, a real human tide, are mobilized to welcome this “raiamandreny” since “it would be sacrilege to fail in the duties that are imposed on him, and even the only indifference towards him is not Admitted by tradition “(chronicler of the Magazine of Madagascar, July 1939).
    According to our reporter, impatience and joy can be read on all faces-and no doubt also the curiosity-of seeing Coppet “the object of indescribable ovations.” Governor-General, who is “very much affected by the enthusiasm of this delirious crowd, who acclaim him frantically and to which he never ceases to reply majestically.” It should be noted, however, that all the new chiefs of the colony are thus welcomed in the capital!
    It is during a reception that follows this popular reception “delirious”, that it presents what it calls its two programs short and long. “Although a governor, a mere executing agent, has no policy other than that of the government he represents, I have in mind two programs, two action plans.”
    The first can be summarized in two words: national defense. “In the grave circumstances which the world is going through in the presence of the lusts of which our colonial empire is the object, every Frenchman in France or Outremer has the first duty to defend his country. “More precisely, the ground where he was born, the one he puts forward, to defend his property, which he conquered by his work. “Above all, he must defend his freedom, for no one escapes us today but a defeat would be slavery to us. “
    In this program, Coppet plans to set up a colonial army, a concern
    Cardinal “of those who hold the least power. For their part, the inhabitants must contribute to this defense by their work. To work is to produce more.
    The other program “of further realization (…) in all truth I confess that I do not know. “
    De Coppet has already spent three years in Antananarivo, thirty years earlier. “Thirty years of fruitful work for the French in favor of the Great Island, whose present-day manifestations so diverse amazed me,” he said. It must be recognized that these three years spent in Madagascar in his youth make him follow the evolution of the country through books, regulations, exhibitions, photographs and even films.
    “But nothing replaces direct experience, contact with the earth, the atmosphere, the life of a country …” And in order to learn the country again, to see everything, to hear everything in order to draw up this program at Long-term like any good self-respecting governor. And he plans to draw up this plan of action with the collaboration of the “various peoples” who make up the Great Island because “it must strive to achieve harmony between these elements”.
    However, it warns that it will take any decision that will dictate to him the circumstances and the general interest of the country. With his thirty-five years of colonial experience, particularly in Africa, where he performs all the duties that can be entrusted to a trustee from the lowest to the top of the scale, he declares himself a “professional man. And above all a man of order and discipline. ” He then issued a severe warning against “those who would be tempted to disturb this order, to infringe this discipline on the law, the regulations”.
    And to explain his conception of discipline: “Without discipline, there is neither freedom nor progress possible, neither for a man nor for a country. Anyone who violates this necessary social discipline would be astonished at the speed and rigor of the decisions I would certainly make. “Finally, he indicates the meaning he gives to the” formula
    Touching “of” raiamandreny “. “On the one hand, it means firmness, and on the other, benevolence, and I shall endeavor to apply it thus. “

    #486
    Madagascar
    Keymaster

    At the end of the eighteenth century, the Indian Ocean was the setting for large trades, the slave, ox and rice trade in the Madagascar-Mascarene direction, and in the opposite direction trade was in manufactured goods , Canvases, alcohol, etc.). This trade plays an important role in the external relations of the island and extends far beyond its predominant location, the eastern coast, to the highlands, sihanaka, bezanozano and merina.
    The traveler Mayeur, one of the most active of the Trait of the eighteenth century, adds a piece on the subject as an appendix to his Journey in the North of Madagascar (November 1774-January 1776). His writing refers to the post-Laval period, which governs the Treaty of the Indies. In 1767, he was replaced by Glemet during the transfer from the Ile de France to the French king, but he found himself once more a draftsman one year later.
    Mayeur evokes “the variations in the prices of the objects of trade and their causes”. As long as the Indian Company and the King monopolize trade in the Great Island, counters exist everywhere on the eastern coast: Toamasina, Fulpointe, Fenoarivo, Manakara, in Antongil Bay. Prices are uniform and the rice is measured; Similarly, the cost of manufactured products is fixed on known bases and agreed on both sides.
    Later, the Treaty is allowed to individuals, thus promoting competition. Thus, the price of a slave ranges from 23 to 62 piastres, that of beef between 4 and 8 piastres, and the rice, half a piastre the measure of 60 pounds against 90 pounds before. Accordingly, Mayeur suggests that “the trade of the interior should be left exclusively to the people of the country. They were strangely mistaken in believing that the fomentation of divisions between the natives was a
    Policy in the interests of Europeans “.
    Explaining his assertions, Mayeur says that if Malagasy are obliged to bring their rice to the counters they are near, competition not only raises the price, but also transforms villages into as many sales posts. And that’s not all. After having sold their rice, the Madcasses abandoned it, and it was necessary to remake with them for transport a second treaty almost as expensive as the first. He stressed that the Malagasy, conscious of the needs of the French, would never agree to lower prices
    Competition.
    Concerning the provocation of conflicts between indigenous people in the idea that it is a sure way to procure more slaves, Mayeur challenges this European policy. For him, it is not in the midst of the fires, devastations and other scourges of war that commerce can develop. He cites the example of Labigorne’s war with the king of Fulpointe, Zanahary, son of Ratsimilaho, in 1751 and 1760. In the first conflict, an accurate account of the ensuing slave sales, Of 2,000 prisoners to be exported for the Treaty; In the second case, out of 2,500 prisoners, only 200 are sold. “In a third similar war, in 1781, against the same prince, the number of prisoners amounted to 1,500, and that of slaves to 150 at the most. “
    The reasons for this disproportion are simple. The first is that these are civil wars and the warriors in conflict are mostly relatives or allies. At the end of hostilities, the victors give freedom to their prisoners or exchange them against those captured by the enemy.
    In the second place, the population of the province of Foulpointe, which trades in the interior with the plan of selling their slaves to the merchants, seeing the war on, does not sell them but keeps them for the exchanges necessitated by the conflict.
    Finally, they are occupied in fortifying themselves and defending themselves, or they abandon the Tract entirely inland, or they do it only with great risk. Slaves thus become rare, which increases the disproportionate price compared with manufactured goods. This is also true for rice and oxen.

    #487
    Madagascar
    Keymaster

    It is a true tourist island, green eden and haven of protection for the ships with holds. Nosy Mangabe called Isle Marose in the bottom of the vast Antongil Bay, constitutes a regular stopover point for the ships of the Dutch East India Company. Indeed, after doubling the Cape of Good Hope, they headed towards Mauritius and Sumatra avoiding the dangerous gusts of the Channel of Mozambique.
    Faithful to a maritime custom that later would have to render much service to historians, Dutch sailors releasing to the island Marose do not fail to fix on the cliffs and stone slabs the trace of their passage. They write their names, those of their ships and the date of their stay. These inscriptions allow us to precisely mark the series of voyages and maritime incursions of the period between 1595 and 1657.
    Besides this historical importance, Nosy Mangabe is also directly connected with the installation of the French in Madagascar since on February 14, 1774, the Hungarian adventurer Benyowski arrives there. He was commissioned by Louis XV to found a colony in Antongil Bay. The small island will retain the memory of this event by a new denomination. Benyowski gives the island the name of the Duke of Aiguillon, governor of Brittany, and the beach on which he approaches, is baptized with the name of M. de Boynes, Minister of the Navy. And it is under these names that both appear on the old maps.
    Benyowski and his companions left no traces on this island because they stayed there for a short time to go to the bottom of the bay on 14 February 1774, when their attempt to colonize ended in disaster. Seconded by the natives, he built Louisbourg, erected forts, built roads, dug channels. But at the end of 1774, he abandoned the cause of France and declared himself independent. Besides, a few tens of thousands of Betsimisaraka recognize him as their king.
    It is not long, however, to be assailed by many difficulties. He left for Europe and dared to solicit in person the assistance of France which rejected his pretensions. No happier in Austria and England, he went as far as America, whence he returned to Madagascar in 1785 with some insufficient subsidies. But this time, France treats him as a rebel and in an engagement with troops sent from Bourbon against him, Benyowski is killed by a shot in the Bay of Antongil, on 27 May 1786.
    Unfortunately, not all Malagasy tourist sites have such a historic past. Such as the gorges of Manambolo in the crossing of the Antsingy (or Tsingy). They contain caves which for a long time have been chosen by local populations to deposit their dead. The difficulties of access make these ultimate asylums almost inviolable.
    Similarly, simple shelters under rocks are used as cemeteries. One of them is near the village of Bekopaka: the coffins containing the bodies are placed on the stone, sheltered from the weather by the overhanging vault. The bones they contain seem to belong to Vazimba, called Beosy in the country, and which constitute one of the oldest populations of the island. “Perhaps even the only autochthonous race before the arrival of invaders from the East.” As a result, these cemeteries are of great ethnographic interest.
    Another curiosity of the country sakalava: the silicified woods of the region of Morafenobe, giants overturned and transformed into stone defying eternity. They are fossil trees made of quartz or chalcedony. They are only represented by trunks and these are never branched because the branches are broken or destroyed during the transport by the currents between the places of origin and deposit. Bongalava is sometimes referred to as the location on which these forests live.

    #488
    Madagascar
    Keymaster

    Jean Laborde built the Rova (royal enclosure) of Tsinjoarivo as a holiday resort of Ranavalona I. Construction began in 1834 and ended two years later. Ranavalona II (1868-1883) and Ranavalona III (1883-1897), like Rasoherina, who reigned from 1863 to 1868 and who moved little for reasons of health, like the first of the name, stayed in Tsinjoarivo. Especially Ranavalona II who is often suffering and who appreciates the rest she enjoys in this wild setting.
    However, compared with their holidays, their official visits are rare: three for Ranavalona I (1840, 1842, and 1856), two for Ranavalona II (1880 and 1882), two also for Ranavalona III (1889 and 1890). All the rituals of their stays are organized under the first sovereign, the two following merely follow what is already fixed, contenting themselves with removing what is outdated and improving what can be.
    As the custom has established since time immemorial, the queen never leaves the Rova through the great north-east gate through which she has entered. To leave it, it borrows the portal of the south-west. The latter also leads to the two famous falls of the Onive which flows at the foot of the Rova and denominated Ambavaloza upstream and Andriamamovoka downstream.
    The name Ambavaloza comes from two rocks located at the foot of the fall. Very visible when the water is low during the dry season, they give the impression of forming an open mouth of fawn where the water is engulfed before rejecting it.
    Both historians and villagers assert that this was the “favorite game” of Ranavalona I, “cruel queen” at the time. It consists of throwing up the fall of the calves requisitioned from the breeders. Carried away by the current, they struggled before smashing themselves on the rocks of the river. This show would be highly appreciated by the queen. When the calves are lacking, it will precipitate prisoners whose sentences exceed four years of detention.
    A little further downstream, to reach the fall of Andriamamovoka you have to go down a large stone staircase that also has its history. Formerly before marriage, the betrothed must appear before the sovereign to receive his blessing. She gives it only after the young man and the girl, each on his side, goes down the steps that make up the stairs. A number that each must tell the sovereign.
    If their two answers are correct, they receive the much-anticipated “tsodranon’ny mpanjaka”. On the other hand, if they are false and, moreover, do not agree, it separates them immediately because, argues she, they are incapable of understanding and therefore living in harmony.
    Andriamamovoka bears his name well. A few steps from the footbridge where you have a beautiful view of the waterfall, you are already sprinkled with “dust” of water. Reflecting the sun’s rays, these water droplets form a rainbow whose location varies according to the position of the sun: in the west in the morning, in the east in the afternoon. The oral tradition, however, maintains that this rainbow appears only if one whistles in a certain way.
    In the dry season, when the water is very low, it is possible to cross the river by borrowing the rocks. The queen, on the other hand, contented herself with a natural platform near the fall to bathe. She lets herself be sprayed by the spray from the water that strikes the bottom of the platform, the villagers say. It also appears that it is near this platform that the ritual sacrifices of oxen “volavita” organized in Tsinjoarivo take place.
    It is between the two waterfalls also that are executed the young people who keep company at Ranavalona Ire at night. Early in the morning, elements of the royal guard took each unfortunate man to his fate, on the banks of the Onive, to decapitate him. By this act, it is said, she suppresses the proof of her inclination for the beautiful males of the village. Out of respect for these “innocent victims”, it is forbidden to relieve themselves between the two falls. This is the only taboo that exists in the Rova and its surroundings. Another popular custom takes place at the foot of Andriamamovoka until August 2008.

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