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The establishment of the French protectorate over Madagascar in October 1895 did not change the Sakalava and Antankarana,
Governor Ratovelo in Anorotsangana. His first concern was to avenge the citizens.
Queen Binao then asked the French authorities of Nosy Be for help. The French merely advised him, in order to defend himself better, to build a fortified village where he would gather all the Sakalava bemihisatra, even those who had fled to the islands.
Chased from Ambohimarina, Ratovelo is in fact placed as governor-general of Vohémar by order of Ranavalona III of 6 June 1896.
“Incomprehensible situation for the Antankarana because they were ignorant of the treaty
Franco-Hova on 1 October 1895. The Ankarana region was nevertheless quieter because Ratovelo’s troops no longer dared venture there, fearing the intervention of the Antankarana stationed at Nosy Mitsio and the French at Diego-Suarez (Ambalavelona or the anticolonial insurrection in the north-west of Madagascar in 1898 by Cassam Aly Ndandahizara).
Then, by the law of 6 August 1896, which abolished the protectorate, Madagascar was annexed and became a French colony. The Sakalava and the Antankarana refugees on the various islands of the Northwest find their villages, fields and pastures on the Great Earth.
General Joseph Simon Gallieni arrived in Antananarivo on September 16, 1896, to replace General Voyron, superior commander of the occupation corps and military territories. And from September 28, as resident general to succeed Hippolyte Laroche.
That same day he addressed Queen Ranavalona III: “I am glad to receive your Majesty and to express to you the sentiments of my affection and sympathy for France and for the government of the Republic. It could not be otherwise, Madam, for Madagascar is now a French land. It is my duty to express myself very frankly and very clearly on this subject, so that there is no longer any doubt and ambiguity on this point in your mind or in that of the population of Emyrne: the island of Madagascar is now a French colony and the populations that inhabit it have become French subjects. French colors are the only ones that must now float on the smallest villages on the Big Island. “
On February 28, 1897, Ranavalona III received from the hand of Governor Rasanjy and the Chief of the General Staff, Decree No. 633 abolishing Merina royalty. It is directed to Toamasina where it is embarked for the island of Reunion then Algiers.
But a year before, two laws were passed by the French Parliament on March 9, 1896, on the system of landed property and that of concessions. Month by month, General Gallieni is informed of the progress of reconnaissances and explorations undertaken throughout the island.
Especially in the province of Nosy Be, the part between the sea, the Amber Mountain and the Bekopaka Bay to the north, and the Mananjeba River to the south, is almost unknown. Further south, the valleys of Mananjeba, Mahavavy, Ifasy, Sambirano and its tributary the Ramena have already some points placed. The dividing lines between these different basins and their tributaries have yet to be determined.
The largest gap in the map is limited to the north by the Ifasy river, to the east by the Mahavavy, to the south by the Maevarano and to the west by the Sambirano.
Finally, the whole country-between the Maevarano to the north and the Sofia to the south, the dividing line between two sides of the island to the east and the sea to the west-is traversed only by four different directions . They are separated by distances such that their orographic lines do not weld and can not subsequently be used for assembly work.