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Madagascar, historically, cattle farming has a character all its own: is not speculative, it is termed “contemplative.” Or “collection” by Theo-Dolorès Randrianja, a student at the National School of Administration Madagascar in 1968, preparing his graduation memory in the province of Mahajanga. For him, the farmer acts as a collector “for whom questions of dress, wheezing are predominant, being overweight appreciated that as part aesthetic. Dresses and age groups also have a complicated terminology for distinguishing an ox of another. “
Some are “fady” such as “omby bory” or cattle without horns, “omby kotrana” or bullock floating horns, “vandamena” or mottled red oxen excluded livestock or unused. Others, however, are rare coins therefore overestimated, as oxen “volavita” and “mazavaloha” with the head and the posterior marked white.
Breeding is very extensive. That is to say that the cattle roam free on pasture
natural, very irregular babysitting, rare parking or wrong, the unknown stalling. Therefore, the results are poor: low production of meat, dairy insufficient ability of cows, difficult and suitable training for fitness to work oxen is not used.
This freedom is the question of conflict-rearing culture that results in the problem of straying. The oxen are causing huge devastation. Theo-Dolorès Randrianja the notes in Mahajanga, Concession company The Mahajamba with trampled hectares, torn from cassava … “The herds being unguarded and not parked, taking advantage of the night to invade cultivated fields as are prohibited the day. We can not stop the rest of the oxen with ordinary means because they are half-wild, mowing and eating everything in their path. “
The extent of damage caused by livestock straying requires a mandatory parking more or less long term. Indeed, there must be the multiplication of the population and therefore food needs requiring new culture courses.
This problem has existed since the colonial administration. In 1927, the General Government issued a decree prescribing the modalities for the guarding of oxen, on the basis of a cattle-dog for 50 animals. The text is still in effect in 1960, on the fight against straying cattle.
However, in each municipality, the “Dinam-pokonolona” (sort of collective agreement) strengthen or renew the order. At Bekobay, for example, the pact “punishes the owners of fines oxen and forces them to make twice the value of crops destroyed.”
In Ambato Boeny, all able-bodied man, owner of oxen or not, is required to participate in the construction of fences against these animals. “Previously, reserved land crops are defined by an agreement of Fokonolona. “
But most of the time, these measures are ineffective. The failure of their application
is explained by the fact that the farmer is both a farmer and rancher. He will not abandon any of its activities and yet he can not reconcile. Especially that “his breeding conception helping it, it chooses the quantity and not profitability for its livestock wandering around without guard”. He devotes his time to food crops that provide their livelihood. He can not nevertheless pay the guard because of financial barriers.
And above all, usually settlements are above the “Dinam-pokonolona” as to Bekobay. As for the Ambato-Boeny experiment, “the fences were made of branches and fine gaulettes which hardly resisted the pressure of the oxen attracted by the greenery.”