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As expected, at the behest of the French Minister of Foreign Affairs, Freycinet, resident Le Myre de Villers met with Prime Minister Rainilaiarivony in August 1886. The member of the French government calls “null and void” The clarification of the treaty signed by Patrimonio and Miot, which the Malagasy authorities demanded to be annexed to the treaty of December 17, 1885. For him, it must be considered as a “dead letter”.
It is also on this occasion that the French resident announces the refusal of his government to erect an English bank in Antananarivo, as provided by Rainilaiarivony and Kingdon.
Concerning Diego-Suarez, “if the Malagasy government does not accept the French seizure up to 10km south of the bay, France will colonize all the plain that is there”.
Le Myre de Vilers also challenges the sending of Willoughby, as a Malagasy emissary,
In Europe because, he emphasizes, “the first article of the treaty specifies that only France represents Madagascar abroad”. And, he concludes, “as a result, the Malagasy government must withdraw its ambassadors from Mauritius and London.”
The Prime Minister replies, in connection with the financial institution and the loan contracted, that “the Malagasy government has the right to conduct commercial negotiations because there is no provision in the treaty that prevents it”.
Concerning the delimitation of the bay of Diego-Suarez which is “ceded” to France, Rainilaiarivony accepts that it extends over 2.5km in the south, in the east and in the west of the bay and on 7km ” Of diameter to the north of the bay, including the headlands and promontories. “
Finally, on the trip of Willoughby in Europe, he specifies that it is only a “friendly mission”. But the discussions ended with the “categorical refusal” of each party on all the points mentioned and no agreement was reached.
Prime Minister Rainilaiarivony prefers to send a direct message to his French counterpart, reminding him of the explanations already given to his resident. It also highlights “that the Malagasy government is independent in its policy and external relations” and it formally refuses the encroachment of the French resident in this area.
Thus, an ambiguity hangs over the provisions of the treaty on this point, especially in its translation into Malagasy. This allows the Prime Minister to interpret the clauses of the treaty concerning the exequatur of consuls and foreign agents, other than the French. This happened in 1890.
Four years later, the French government sees it as a “violation of the treaty” and as a pretext for launching a second war, which will become the “decisive campaign” of 1895. Begun on 1 March by the landing at Mahajanga of the expeditionary force Commanded by General Metzinger, it ended by the capture of Antananarivo by General Duchesne on September 10th. Madagascar is proclaimed the same day, French Protectorate.
Fifty-five days later, the first nationalist resistance movement, known as Menalamba, broke out. It operates in several regions of the island. Resident General Hippolyte Laroche is then judged too weak to subdue the insurgents called for the occasion “Fahavalo” (enemies). He was quickly replaced, after a few months, by General Joseph Simon Gallieni, who restored order by force.
In France, the Chamber of Deputies takes a unilateral decision and declares, on August 6, 1896, Madagascar French Colony. On February 28, 1897, the last queen of Madagascar, Ranavalona III, was deposed and sent into exile to Reunion and then to Algeria, by a “decree” of Gallieni. The latter, on his own initiative and “without the explicit authorization” of his government, thus abolished Merina royalty.
Since that date and for sixty years, the Malagasies live “under the tutelage of the mother-country”, represented by the governors-general.