Select Page

Madagascar News Forums Exposed The Existence of a Dwarf people in southern Madagascar

1 voice
34 replies
  • Author
    Posts
  • #628
    Madagascar
    Keymaster

    The Notes continue the brief overview of the Malagasy forests in the 1930s. After the East, the Far-South and the Southwest, they go back to the western regions, passing through the wet-type gallery forest Which borders the rivers and large rivers more or less seasonal of the plateaus bara.
    “The shade found there is conducive to anyone traveling in the country, whether in the automobile or filanzane and is lavishly lavished by the Kily” (“La Revue de Madagascar”, January 1935). These tamarind trees have an abundant and thick “fleece”. But there are also Rotra with feet bathed in these streams often sanded.
    Botanists recount the journey they made in this region in July 1936. More precisely on the limestone table between Onilahy and Fiherenana before reaching Toliara. “One would think one would go through the plateaux of eastern France at the end of the autumn: gray and powdery roads, clean and clear-planted trunks, with smooth and whitish trunks and the dead foliage that lines the ground, Azure so bright but so pale, recall the hikes in Lorraine or in Franche-Comté. Only the giant baobabs, Adansonia, from Ejeda, awaken them from this illusion.
    According to travelers, it is a very complex region where the flora of the South and the West overlap over a vast area, with enormous cuts. The commoners refuse to call these forests and profit “to destroy the vestiges which are in fact as much savannah”. The Adansonia reigns only when the last thorny trunks disappear. Inland, a thin strip of the true western forest stretches.
    What strikes us most in the West, between Toliara and Mahajanga, especially between the ancient provinces of Ankazoabo, Morondava, Maintirano, Mahajanga and Soalala, is to see leafless trees in a tropical climate and a burning sun. “In fact, the period of denudation of these trees is short-lived and often uneven, which makes it possible to find some shade among these stands. “
    The further north we go, particularly between Kandreho and Analalava, the more the foliage persists until it becomes constant, as in the Antsiranana region. From the deciduous forest, one passes imperceptibly to the forest of the East always green.
    In general, when one evokes the Malagasy forest, one thinks only of the high forests of the eastern slope, whether one ignores the western stands, or that one ignores their importance and their value. This is why the vast majority of forestry operators are located on the Indian Ocean. Similarly, the timber trade is mainly carried out by Antsiranana, Antalaha, Maroantsetra, Toamasina and Manakara, due to the extreme richness of the forests of these regions.
    But the ports of the Mozambique Channel are the site of a considerable traffic of various timber, originating from the neighboring massifs, operated more or less regularly by a number of dealers.
    Mangroves are found on the west coast because there are several. Each species of mangrove is well localized, in pure stand (90 to 95%) or in a mixture with a very small number of other species, three at the most. From the point of view of
    And their use, mangroves with tanniferous barks and those with non-tanniferous barks. The former can be used for the supply of wood for construction and heating and for the production of tannin, while the latter provide only firewood and timber.
    Among the tanniferous species are the Honkolahy with numerous adventitious roots, which live in a pure stand in the middle part of the salt sludge, and Tsitolona, ​​which is mixed with the first in a small proportion (5-6%) as a result Of abusive previous operations.
    Other species are rich enough in tanning matter, such as Honkovavy, “a species far from the former, despite the synonymy of names”. It has pure stands with nodosities that flush over the flooded sandy terrains.
    Among these non-tanniferous species are Afiafy with pneumatophoric roots, and Farafata, whose much higher roots literally soar to the soil.

    #629
    Madagascar
    Keymaster

    Radama I accepts the abolition of the slave trade under conditions: the payment of an equivalent indemnity and the sending to Antananarivo of craftsmen and tools provided by the British Government. Some of these artisans belong to the London Missionary Society, create workshops in the capital and, by training apprentices, found technical education.
    A carpenter, a blacksmith, a weaver and a cobbler tanner arrived in June 1822. They were welcomed by Radama with all the honors due to the important personages. They immediately received a place appropriate to the nature of their activity and a servant. “In exchange, they had to undertake the training of eight young people, most likely chosen among the free population (Hova). The Tantara teach us that professional work was then regarded as a title of nobility “(Jean Valette, archivist-paleographer).
    However, the carpenter Brooks soon suffered the attacks of fever and died on June 24, ten days after his arrival. On the other hand, the blacksmith Chick, who lived in Amparibe, trained several hundred persons in various iron and metal works, in the construction of machines and later in various kinds of iron works for the construction of the Soanierana Palace .
    The weaver Rowlands settled on one of the sacred hills at Antsahadinta to make fabrics. But this attempt can hardly succeed. “Weaving, in fact, is only one aspect of the textile industry, which requires much more money and knowledge than a single individual can gather. So Rowlands moved in 1827 east of Angavo, to Itody, and engaged in hemp cultivation to produce sail fabrics. But once again, death interrupts the work.
    The fourth, Canham installs a tannery and a shoe factory in Fenoarivo where he trains many apprentices.
    At the same time, the LMS ships tools. In 1826, a spinning machine accompanies two other technicians to help those already in place. Among them, a spinner, Cumings, who teaches the various processes of his art to a number of young people chosen by Radama. He is also responsible for the cultivation of mulberry trees and the manufacture of silk. But the mediocrity of the resources of the country, the difficulties he experienced in doing his job, quickly discouraged him and he withdrew after two years of residence. “The machine he had brought had a longer career because it remained in the hands of Ranavalona I who had it used for the manufacture of lamba and other objects. It even continued to be used as best it could until 1870.
    On the other hand, his companion Cameron will play a leading role in Madagascar. It is, par excellence, “the type of the missionary master-worker”. Thanks to his intellectual capacities, he introduced important innovations in Imerina where he died in 1875, fifty years after his first arrival.
    If Cameron is best known for having stoned Manjakamiadana Palace and built the delightful Manampisoa, both in the Rova of Antananarivo, it is also a great architect who, before coming to Madagascar, was introduced to Manchester To the handling of the machines he brings. He moved to Ambatonakanga where he taught. At the same time Radama charged him with the public works of the kingdom.
    In addition, after the accidental death of Hovenden on December 15, 1827, in charge of operating the first printing press introduced in the capital, he was called upon to ensure the continuation of the work in progress. Multiple activities full of difficulties that he had to overcome.
    In summary, Cameron and his colleagues bring different improvements in iron work, tanning and leather preparation. In the building, they perfected several kinds of structural work, introduced stone into various constructions, made different kinds of bricks. Freeman relates Betsileo of slate and sharpening stone, unknown before. They find limestone after years of unsuccessful research, plants containing a high proportion of potash and soda for the manufacture of soap, then glass and pottery. They even discover a metal sulphide from which they extract the sulfur in abundance …

    #630
    Madagascar
    Keymaster

    “Atody miady amam-bato”! When the Egg Fights Stone is the feeling Felt by the resident general of France in Madagascar, Hippolyte Laroche. In his second report to the Minister of War, he
    “Murders perpetrated by the Fahavalo”, that is to say the insurrectionary acts of the partisans Menalamba (lamba red).
    After recalling that Father Berthieu was killed on 7 June in Ambohibemasoandro, Hippolyte Laroche cites “several untoward events” in the Vonizongo. Thus on 10 June, before Ambohipihaonana, the capital of Vonizongo, 75 km from Antananarivo on the RN4, and better known by its current name, Ankazobe, 100 Fahavalo (enemies, term used to designate the insurgents) appear. The garrison of the town, numerous enough and armed with carbines, abandoned the defense to join them. The governor of the Vonizongo, Rakotovoalavo is taken, dragged out of the city and killed “with guns and sagaies” with five of his officers. Their wives and children attend the execution and, being held back and abused by the gang, are threatened with the same fate “but manage to escape during the night after sixty-six hours of captivity”.
    Three Europeans locked up in a house the same day, “are besieged for twenty-eight hours.” During the night of June 10-11, a large quantity of straw is brought by the “enemies” and piled up against the walls. They set fire to the roof and the rest of the house. The besieged must leave and succumb immediately to the number of their opponents. Two days later, 80 riflemen from Ambohidratrimo come to occupy Ambohipihaonana. The wandering bands in the region do not try to oppose it and since then “the direction of the North-West has returned to calm, the insurrection is extinct there”.
    However, it is to the east of the capital, at 23-30 km, that “the most unfortunate events occur”. For example, in the Isoavina and Ankeramadinika areas, bands that have revealed their presence, including the murder of French contractors and supervisors Savonyan, Emery, Collin and Rigal, were seized by surprise on 7, 8 and 9 June. Hippolyte Laroche mentions that he has attracted the attention of General Voyron on the threat to the part of the road between the two villages. But the general assured him “absolutely” the safety of the road. “I believe, however, that his provisions to protect the road have been quite inadequate. “
    And to explain his assertion: “There have long been 40 Senegalese riflemen at Ankeramadinika. After having, at the beginning of the month, replaced a company at Isoavina at my request, the general did not think it necessary to do more, to have, for example, intermediate posts between the two villages. The distance between them is 26 km in rough terrain. The rebellious bands being immediately on the roadside, it was to be expected that they would come to alarm him, and even to cross him, if this long ribbon were only kept at his two extremities. “
    The fact does not fail to occur. Of June 17 to 24, the bands assault the convoys daily, scattering the porters, clearing the baggage, shooting with armed escorts when there are any. Captain Delacroix of the geographical service, joining the capital on June 22, met the same bands in the same places and “tugged” several hours with them. Young officers coming from France did not complain of this shooting, and “threw themselves with enthusiasm at the pursuit of white lambs,” held by the Menalamba fighters.
    The presence of these latter is especially troublesome for commerce, for isolated travelers constantly exposed to an attack, and discontent breaks out in the Tananarivian population. Some Fahavalo, crossing the road during the night, “come, moreover, to worry the hitherto quiet region which borders it to the south, to set fire to several temples and schools and to spread the emotion until the outskirts of Ambatomanga And Ambatomalaza “.
    These “wasp stings” were also accompanied by the destruction of the telegraph line running along the road. “Tananarive is without communication since June 22”. On June 26, an engineer sergeant was sent with equipment to restore it. The escort of skirmishers accompanying him, hunt “a rebel party, others take advantage of it to take over the material.”

    #631
    Madagascar
    Keymaster

    Madagascar’s eastern lowland forest is not continuous from south to north, either because the mountain foothills descend to the sea, or because the coastal terrain supports Rich crops (see previous note). In the 1930s, we encountered very large massifs, which gradually became part of the degraded edges of the secondary stands, where we find the famous Ravinala, the tree of the traveler, a plant that is essentially Malagasy.
    The raffia on the east coast alternates with the true coastal forest and is grouped into “pure stands”, of very variable extent, but more and more reduced as one moves towards the south. The last feet encountered do not reach the latitude of Manakara.
    The continual exploitation by the local populations who find in this palm tree enough to satisfy many of their needs (walls and roofs for the construction of huts, food, rabbits) rarefies these stands day by day. Therefore, for their conservation, the administration envisaged a special regulation at the time. But this species is not peculiar to the east coast because it is found in the western plains.
    From the first foothills of the mountain chain called the great cliff that runs from north to south, one enters the great eastern forest of clearly tropical type, tempered in some places by altitude. It is made up of tall forests with tall and imposing barrels, whose mamelonated vault allows only a very diffuse light and which dominates a secondary vegetation of undergrowth, “of unusual complexity and abundance”. Forests where creepers, brambles, bamboos, shrubs and herbaceous plants, mingled with one another, seem to oppose any penetration.
    “In fact, these primary settlements only meet with the relief or the absence of any possible outlet have barred the way to the man. Elsewhere, the instinct of innate destruction in this one, has always been right in this inextricable world to leave the traces of its harmful penetration, “writes a botanist.
    In some parts, this strip extends over a width of nearly 100 km, particularly in the region between Fenoarivo-atsinanana and Vohémar. But in the south-east, it splits, then breaks up into isolated massifs and ends in a very narrow spur on the shore of Tolagnaro itself. “This gives this city a grandiose setting. Here the half-rocky, half-forested mountain descends to the very edge of the sea, which is crushed at its feet bordered by magnificent beaches.
    Between Toamasina and Antananarivo, and especially along the railway line which winds through this vegetable world, there are the farms necessary for the needs of the railway, such as woody fuels, sleepers, railway carriages, and so on. These farms are the responsibility of the forestry service, to which the logging workforce, the infamous Smotig, supplies the lumberjacks.
    The main forestry research station where the main foreign and indigenous species have been studied since the beginning of the 20th century is located in the same area. They are intended for the reforestation of barren lands and artificial regeneration of the primitive forest.
    This immense forest constitutes the almost inexhaustible reservoir of the woods which are the subject of local and export trade. It is rich in an infinite variety of species: woodworking, carpentry, construction, timber, ties, mines, crates, heating and charcoal. In addition, it contains many accessory products, of varying utility: bamboos, rubbers, gums, resins, animal and vegetable waxes, honey.
    The rosewoods with their varied tones, from light brown to purplish red, are still abundant, while ebony trees are increasingly confined to inaccessible regions. The varieties of carpentry and construction, the most sought after and which give rise to the most important transactions, are Varongy, Vintanina, Faralaotra, Ambora, Nato, Rotra, Lalona, Herehitsika, Hazomena, Kijy, Merana, Manoka, Vivaona and Ramy.
    As for crates and heating, Ramy white, Ambavy, Voapaka, Voamana and Tavolo are among the most widely used in the East and on the plateaus Malagasy.

    #632
    Madagascar
    Keymaster

    The vast and bare central plateau of the Great Island is surrounded by a Malagasy sylve. In the 1930s, there was no serious breach in this forest belt just cut, here and there, of rivers and rivers, but an infinity of faces, tones and depths.
    In fact, we can not speak of the “forest of Madagascar”, but of the forests betsimisaraka, tanala, antemoro, antandroy, mahafaly, masikoro, sakalava and many others. It appears, in fact, that “the associations of trees and those of men have been grouped two by two, by affinity, human races and vegetable stands, to form only a living, indestructible block deeply attached to the corner of the earth Of a common ancestor “.
    In the Great Island, the forest extends along the shoreline, reaches the highlands from 1,000 to 2,000 meters above sea level, from the north, center or south, but what strikes us most is ” That no tree of the land can be seen. ” According to botanists, this anomaly results from the ancestral Malagasy practice of the “tavy”, which they describe as “destructions followed
    Forest fires “for the cultivation of food crops. A practice against which it is very difficult for the administration to react completely.
    The forest gradually recedes from the most populous plateaus, to be confined in the coastal and intermediate regions, as the colonization in the periphery of the island develops.
    Another reason for the regression of the woodlands “and to a large extent” is the annual fires in the grasslands and bushland for the immediate but ephemeral renewal of pastures. “These fires lick the forest edges and cause them to decline each year more. “
    Where the fire passes, after a few centuries if not years, the tree can no longer grow back and natural vegetation becomes scarce. And this is the infernal cycle: erosion drives the thin layer of earth already calcined by the fire itself. As a result, any attempt at artificial forest stands is almost impossible.
    In the 1930s, for example, these central regions present a landscape of “glowing nudity of barren wild beauty”, while the vast and vast forest still covers nearly six million hectares. Three main types of forest are found in Madagascar.
    To the east, it has a tropical character, in the west it displays deciduous leaves and in the south, it is the xerophilous forest. But this is only a general distinction of the sylve
    Because there are all the intermediate stages of these three types, not to mention that
    Each contains a number of very particular and locally confined stands.
    In addition, the term “deciduous western forest” is too general, since the West has a whole mangrove mangrove mangrove, whose foliage persists throughout the year. The eastern forest, an uninterrupted spindle that stretches in the northern region of Toamasina with the enormous appendix of the Masoala peninsula, presents four distinct varieties. These are the coastal and lagoon forests, the large primitive forest of the first cliff, the secondary and degraded forest of the intermediate region and the homogeneous stands of raffia.
    Between the sea and the Pangalana Canal, the sandy soil is covered with vegetation
    Clear and slender which fixes the sand of the dunes. The Pandanus and the Dracoena cut their fans and their plumes between the light foliage of copaliers and filaos.
    Other halophilous plants support their bodies on numerous aerial roots such as true crutches supporting the symmetrical branches. A rather similar but denser stand extends beyond the lagoon and is enriched with various species towards the foothills of the first cliff.
    There are some of the finest woodwork in Madagascar: rosewood, ebony
    Veined, red rosewood as well as fine carpentry woods, among which the Hintsy, the Piro and the copalier. “This latter essence also produces the famous copal resin whose value gives rise to a commercial asset. “

    #633
    Madagascar
    Keymaster

    After Radama’s mother, Rambolamasoandro, and his nephew Rakotobe, one of the first high personalities to be the victims of the supporters of Ranavalona I, if not the queen herself, is Ralala. He is the Prime Minister of the deceased king since 1816 and he does not dip in the conspiracy, quite the contrary. Besides, he is out of the capital when he is murdered, having completed an inspection of his cattle on the northern border of the Imerina.
    According to Raombana, Sunday, August 2, 1828, without asking the Queen’s advice, Andriamambavola sends three men to kill him. The latter meet him in the neighborhood of Ambohimanga, when he returns home. As Ralala travels in a palanquin, the “three killers” order the porters to stop under the pretext of news to transmit to him.
    And while one of them occupies him by telling him nonsense, the other two creep behind him and stab him. Ralala believes at first that it is his bearers who murder him. But one of the killers contradicts it:
    “It is not your slaves who execute you, but the men sent by Ranavalomanjaka who reigns in Radama’s place. “
    And Raombana said: “At these words the old man brought a piece of his lamba round his head, and died without groaning under the repeated blows of his assassins. “
    The news of Ralala’s death, “murdered by brigands on the way back to Antananarivo”, spread immediately and came to the queen’s ears. She shows herself pained and orders to arrest the brigands and to bury the body of the minister with honors.
    But Andriamambavola enters this in the Palace. Then “with passion”, he explains to him that the murderous hand took place on his order because Ralala is an ardent defender of the royal family. “If he had been there at Antananarive, at the moment of the king’s death, you would not be a queen at this hour, you might be in the tomb.” These words have the effect expected of the queen.
    She remembers, indeed, that at the beginning of the reign of Radama, Ralala was the main
    Instigator of the death of his parents and his brother. He therefore altered his orders and caused to be proclaimed throughout the city that “Ralala, having been guilty of a serious offense, had been executed on his orders, and that by reason of his crime,
    Its many slaves, its possessions and its rice fields will be confiscated “.
    Thus the slaves of Ralala and his money are distributed between the queen’s parents and the conspirators. Part of his rice fields are divided between the queen and the leaders of the conspiracy, Andriamambavola, Rainiharo and Rainijohary, another between Rainiharo and his brother Rainimaharo. And his fiefs are attributed to Ravalontsalama.
    Thanks to these countless confiscations, especially to the “immense slave herd” of Rambolamasoandro, Rakotobe and Ralala, “the conspirators who, with the exception of Andriamambavola, were miserably poor, Rich and flourishing eye “. So it is with the two sisters of the queen, Rafaramanjaka and Ramasindrazana, or her nephews, Ramboasalama, Ramahatra and Ramonja, or her niece Rabodo.
    But what about the daughter of Radama, Raketaka, and her two sisters, Ratsiadala and Ramarivelo still in Antananarivo Ranavalona does not cause them to be killed, the better they do them harm, judging them harmless. Notably Raketaka, too young and too little sustained in Merina country to be able to shade him.
    In addition, the Queen has other reasons to spare her and to spare her mother, the Princess of Menabe, Rasalimo. She remembers Radama’s sakalava policy and deems it necessary to pursue it.
    Still according to Raombana, if Ralala was in the capital at the time of the king’s death, the palace revolution would not have occurred. Attached to the royal family, a fine and cunning man, according to Raombana, he would have known before the women of Radama the gravity of the king’s illness and he would have taken without delay the necessary measures to ensure the succession to the benefit of Raketaka.
    “For he was loved and feared of the Tsimandoa and all the people, both civilians and soldiers. “

    #634
    Madagascar
    Keymaster

    Fright in Tsaralalana, yesterday at 6 pm. The residents of this downtown location were alerted by a shot. The Malaysian Consul in Madagascar and no less the owner of ZZ center was shot down while passing through this place. The victim was in the back of his car. The assassin disembarked from nowhere aboard a motorcycle and would have taken a position near the vehicle to shoot.
    At the time of writing, the information surrounding the assassination is dribbling. However, according to a hospital source, the man was hit on the back and succumbed to his injuries even before the vehicle carrying him was able to cross the portal of the hospital Hjra where he was to be treated urgently.
    Crime or account settlement? The mystery remains as to the motive of this crime. Only the police investigation will allow us to know more. Let us recall in passing that the name of this national karana has already been cited in a kidnapping case that dates back to the year 2010. He was one of the defendants imprisoned at that time but has subsequently regained freedom.

    #635
    Madagascar
    Keymaster

    The council of ministers planned yesterday has been postponed until today. A reshuffle would be in sight.
    Members of the government did not hold their traditional Wednesday meeting at the Iavoloha State Palace. The weekly council of ministers scheduled yesterday was canceled. According to a generally well-introduced source, the meeting was postponed to this day by the President of the Republic.
    Note that the Governing Council took place on Tuesday, the normal day, at the Palace of Mahazoarivo. That of the ministers was postponed for 24 hours to allow the Head of State to meet personal obligations. Indeed, sources report that Hery Rajaonarimampianina attended the funeral of the father of one of his advisers.
    Beyond the eternal “communications” and “appointments to high state jobs”, the meeting of the Head of State with his ministers of today will be very scrutinized by public opinion. This council of ministers intervenes after a big wave of insecurity in the Big island. Strong decisions on the fight against this scourge are expected from the President of the Republic. Especially after the gesticulations of the latter, at the end of last week.
    On a trip to Tampoketsa-Ankazobe to attend the ceremony of the end of the military maneuver called “Tintotry,” the Supreme Leader of the armed forces had donned the military truss. An initiative that earned him criticism of the public due to the context marked by a surge of violence linked to the insecurity in the country.
    The appointment of the 22 full members and the 22 alternate members of the Malagasy Fampihavanana Council is also expected at the end of this Council of Ministers. The National Selection Committee completed its mission at the end of last week by handing a list of eligible candidates to the President of the Republic.
    A reshuffle in sight?
    If the Council of Ministers of this day is particularly scrutinized, it will also and especially because of the persistent information about the imminence of a reshuffle. Nearly 15 months after the installation of the current team, led by Mahafaly Solonandrasana Olivier, a change in government would indeed be more topical than ever. A government whose action has already been enamelled by slight rearrangements.
    In licensed circles, it is argued that this time should not be a “grooming” or a “mini-shuffle” but rather a more significant change. Five ministries are expected to be primarily concerned with this reorganization, according to the information that comes back. The sources, however, insist that the departure of the Head of Government is not yet on the agenda.
    On the other hand, some major ministries could change their minds, like the Ministry of the Interior, which is also occupied by the Prime Minister. As reported in one of our previous editions, the Department of Mines, the Department of Foreign Affairs, may be affected by this reshuffle.
    Behind the scenes, there is also talk about the fact that President Rajaonarimampianina wants to build a team more solicited to position the other cadres in the preparation now of the 2018 deadlines already in sight. The Minister of Communication and Relations with the Institutions, and spokesman of the government, has for the moment denied the information relating to the existence of a reshuffle. The final decision to make this change belongs to the Head of State who is known for his dithering when changing or deciding …

    #636
    Madagascar
    Keymaster

    Food and nutrition insecurity, a recurrent consequence of climate change. Agriculture is the basis of food. Therefore, if it encounters difficulties in production, the diet will also have them. And currently, climate change impacts much on farmers’ crops, especially with temperature variations and lack of rainfall.
    Researchers have thus tried to find better alternatives in order to adapt agriculture to the current climatic realities and to remedy food insecurity. This agricultural transition will allow a better fight against malnutrition and undernutrition.
    Launched in 2010, this new concept takes shape little by little. Since then, forums and conferences have been organized in order to best meet the needs of each country’s agriculture. “Climato-intelligent agriculture” aims to sustainably increase farmers’ productivity and incomes, increase the resilience and adaptability of agricultural and food systems to climate change, and Mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. To do this, it is based on 3 pillars: food security, adaptation and mitigation. Pillars that can only function according to the initiatives taken by the sector and the farmers themselves.
    Madagascar is also
    1.2 million people are affected by food insecurity in the South. Faced with these figures, the entities concerned want to find more thoughtful initiatives to better tackle food insecurity, especially with climate change. Since yesterday, peasants, researchers and rural development leaders gathered in Ampandrianomby to discuss the application of “climate-smart agriculture” in the country. To do so, exhibitions were presented and symposia on various themes revolving around agriculture and its relationship with the climate were organized. For today, participants will receive special training to improve their production. A competition will even be organized to choose the best service provider that will represent Madagascar in the contest that will take place in South Africa.
    For the Big Island, the ultimate objective is the application of an agricultural transition that meets the needs of the Malagasy people.