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Madagascar News Forums The Transformation of Antananarivo

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    The village of Tsinjoarivo, on the edge of the eastern forest, is located 47 km east of Ambatolampy, a locality on the National Road 7, 67 km from Antananarivo. According to historians, Ranavalona I travels much and loves to furrow his kingdom. Thus, during his reign (1828-1861), informed by Ramanjaka who shares with Andrianaivoravelona the stronghold of Andrangalisa, the present Vohitrarivo, she learns the existence of a verdant and restful region. Interested, the sovereign moves in person to see this enchanting site. According to the oral tradition, the lords would have given way to him by settling not far from there, in Manjaka in particular.
    But finally, the queen decides to settle a little to the west to avoid crossing the River Onive every time she comes to the resort. His choice is first
    The present hill of Mahatsinjo. But to benefit from the natural protection of the Onive, it finally opts for a hill further south, Sarodravina. As the name suggests, the small hill is covered with a primary forest. It will be immediately renamed Tsinjon’Iarivo (perceiving or perceiving of Antananarivo or of Vohitrarivo, the hill of 1 000), then becomes Tsinjoarivo by simplification.
    It is Jean Laborde who builds the Rova (Royal enclosure) of Tsinjoarivo as a holiday resort of Ranavalona I. Construction began in 1834 and ended two years later. Previously, the site must be backfilled. The terrace is 5 m high and measures 52m x 35m. The transport of the land from the Besakana district (about 200 m away) is done in “tohi-vakana”: “The women stood in file like the pearls of a necklace and took the baskets full of earth. This had the advantage of being faster and less tiring. At the same time, the men were responsible for transporting the stones that would protect the embankment. “
    According to Berthe and Jean Ralijaona, chroniclers, Jean Laborde is helped by the artisans of the Hill to the Thirty Men. Two large gates, the line of which recalls that of Ambohimanga, give access to the Rova.
    One to the northeast is the main gate. It is here that ends the great alley of pines by which the sovereign arrives of Antananarivo. The northeast corner or “zoro firarazana” is sacred to the Malagasy in general, the Merina in particular. It is there that they invoke Zanahary (Creator) and the Ancestors to ask them for everything they need (spouses, especially male offspring, health, wealth …) or implore their forgiveness for having transgressed a taboo. The other gate opens to the south-west. It is near this one that rests the body of the personal diviner of the queen, Rainisoabelomanga in whom it places all its confidence.
    The Rova consists of five boxes. Originally, their roofs are made with wooden tiles and wooden walls also. On entering the enclosure, on the left and on each side of the north-east gate, two small twin boxes are intended for princes and princesses. Farther to the left are two larger squares, one of which is the royal reception room, the other the Queen’s pavilion. Finally at the back of the courtyard and isolated, a last little house receives the Prime Minister, first Raharo then his brother and successor Rainilaiarivony.

    Prime Minister Rainilaiarivony also has a pavilion outside the royal enclosure where his son Radriaka resides, 15 honors (rank of general). She is also the husband of Victoire Rasoamanarivo, the first of all Malagasy Catholics to be
    beatified. This is done under the pontificate of John Paul II. This is where the Prime Minister receives his guests. The French resident general Le Myre de Vilers came to confer with Ranavalona III in 1890. The Frenchman is greeted by a convoy of porters led by Marc Rabibisoa, a great intellectual and interpreter in French of the Court.
    Similarly, the princes and officers of the palace owned farms around the Rova. Thus two of the large islets formed by the arms of the Onive near the Ambavaloza fall bear the name of Nosin-d Ramahatra (island of Ramahatra, nephew of Queen Ranavalona II) and Nosin-dRamonja (island of Ramonja). There is also to the east, below the Rova, a prison and a residence of the officers of the Palace later became a school. As it is a simple royal holiday residence and these have nothing of the official and pompous character of traveling to Ambohimanga (one of the cradles of the merina dynasty), the respect of certain labels is not required. Thus, it is not necessary to pass the great entrance gate of the Rova of the right foot as in Antananarivo and Ambohimanga. Similarly, they do not plant “amontana” and “aviavy”, royal trees. As soon as you enter the enclosure, only two centenary pines welcome you. They would be the same age as the original Rova. Moreover, no taboo exists in the enclosure and all around it. Except between the two falls of the Onive.


    Several authors note that Radama Ier did not take any important legal action. But Jean Valette, archivist-paleographer, finds in the Journal de Coppalle some points which reveal an evolution of the laws and manners of tananarivian during the reign of this king. For the diffusion of writing made possible an important innovation: the promulgation of the laws which, from 1826, were placed at the door of the royal palace. Coppalle reports a fact on March 28 of the same year: “It is only recently that the laws are promulgated by poster. They were previously notified orally to the people on the market place. And Jean Valette said: “There is the birth of a legal idea that should be retained, that of the publicity of laws. “
    From a penal point of view, Coppalle notes some information on denunciation, theft, and the tanguin. According to him, “a father in a country delivers himself the head of his guilty son”. He attributes this to the character of Radama “at once sovereign and pontiff.” It is no doubt also an application of a principle of Andrianampoinimerina: “I do not want to prevent a torch from enlightening nor virtue from emerging; I mean, on the contrary, and orders that the repentant criminal should have his life saved. Coppalle points out that “flights here are much less frequent than one would expect from a poor and greedy people. Is it the terrible punishment reserved for thieves who would terrify them Slavery, sometimes death? ” The law of Andrianampoinimerina in this respect is still observed: “Theft,” I say to you, “entails the death penalty, because I want children and adults to enjoy their property peacefully … Death to thieves, so if you want to have Free enjoyment of your possessions … »
    On the other hand, the position taken by Radama Ier on the ordeal by the tanguin is very different from that of his father. Some authors claim that before Andrianampoinimerina, the tanguin is not given to the accused themselves, but to control animals. According to Jean Valette, this allegation seems contrary to all that one knows so much of Merina and coastal customs. For him, by prescribing the test of the tanguin, Andrianampoinimerina only continues a tradition firmly established before him. “Whenever your consciousness remains hesitant or your decisions are obstinately rejected by either party, use the test poison. Grant it also to those who solicit it, whether the request is made to you by one of the parties or by both, whether their dispute arises from property, money, family land, They are accusations brought from individual to individual. It is by this means that you will be able to discern the impostor and to put it out of harm’s way. “
    According to Coppalle, on the advice of Hastie in particular, in 1826 Radama would have long wanted or dared to attack prejudices deeply rooted in his people. “The prince had confined himself for the moment to enacting that from now on two dogs, chosen by the parties, would be subjected to trials in place of their masters. A wise measure, but it does not seem to be included in the Code of Ranavalona I, since its secret will of 1835 expressly foresees it only for “the descendants of Rasoherina and Ralesoka, that is, the heirs of the throne “.

    From the point of view of private law (marriage, divorce, adultery), the prescriptions of Andrianampoinimerina continue to be applied under his son. Nevertheless, for Jean Valette, during the reign of the latter, an evolution is observed in the repression of the adultery that began under his father. More specifically, adultery committed by a woman whose husband is in war. In the beginning, if one of the warriors returning from an expedition caught his wife in the act of adultery, he had the right to kill his rival. But if public malignity informs him, he is only entitled to financial compensation. This will be extended to all cases. “I decide that in the future you will no longer be able to assume the right to kill the accomplice of your adulterous wife without incurring yourself a severe punishment. “This would suggest a complete change under Radama I regarding the notion of the responsibility that would have passed from the adulterous man to the woman.
    Another order reported by Coppalle concerns the sale of spirits. “I tell you all that if someone buys strong liquors with strangers, he will be made a slave with all his family. As for the stranger who has sold, he will be put in irons and sent back to his own country. “
    Two points are to be noted on these codes: before Radama, the foreigners did not penetrate in Imerina; Then, Andrianampoinimerina has already limited the trade and circulation of alcohol by prohibiting them in Vakinankaratra, Ambohimanga and Antananarivo. Radama did not respect the legislation of his father or his own, since Coppalle notes that the king prefers wine and gin to wine, but in a moderate way. Other witnesses say, however, that he is misusing it.


    General resident Joseph Gallieni returns from his inspection of the Malagasy coast in Antananarivo on 10 July. Saluted by the troops with cannon and by the Malagasy authorities with beautiful official speeches, all make a very successful reception. “The one that suited the representative of France,” quotes a chronicler, the correspondent of the Bulletin of the Solidarity Committee.
    But what particularly surprised the old settlers was the “spontaneous manifestation” of popular enthusiasm. “General Gallieni was received by the Malagasy as Ranavalona would have been returning to his good city. Not only were the houses flagged, but the people crowded along the path – “down to the roofs” – and beat their hands in cadence, as one must do according to the ceremonial on the passage of the sovereign.
    “The most curious fact is, that several miles before reaching Antananarivo, women came from neighboring villages and threw bouquets to the general; In the Imerina, the least wallflower consents to push only if it is devoted to maternal care … It is difficult to attribute these demonstrations to fear alone. “
    Indeed, on the itinerary followed by the General, arches of triumph in bananas are erected, united by banners bearing the same inscription: “To General Gallieni the grateful Malagasy people. “
    Remembering some resounding executions, some colonists see it as macabre irony. But others understand the meaning of such a sentence, underlines the chronicler.
    At that time, the mass of the population, freed slaves, porters, small traders, gained a lot from the arrival of the French. For their part, great persons, those who have embraced the cause of the colonizers, have no repentance either, and some princes of the royal family are even decorated. But above all, believes the correspondent of the Bulletin, “the Malagasy appreciate the grip. A walk in the heart of Tananarive, at the top of the city, is instructive from this point of view: at every step, one meets tragic corners.
    He then likes to quote some of these places in order to prove the “grip” of the merina sovereigns beginning with the “expiatory English chapel of Ampamarinana”.
    “From the top of the steep rocks, the condemned to death were thrown into a mat; At the foot of the precipice, the soldiers received them on the point of their spells, and the children of the quarter came to play to stone the corpses. “
    It also indicates, a little farther on, Ambatotsimahasoaolona, ​​”the rock which does not embellish”, a discreet euphemism which designates the stone where the bodies of the persons executed
    “Were delivered to the dogs.”
    “And the dogs of Antananarivo, now peaceful beasts persecuted by the police, and punished with the pound, but always as badly fed, came to snatch from the executioner their human food. “
    Another notorious site indicated by the chronicler: a swamp with great reeds located in the plain at the bottom of the hill of Antananarivo. It was there that at each advent “the new king drowned those of his parents who had been or might have been his competitors.” They are drowned out of respect because the executioner has no right to shed the blood of such high figures.
    “And as the marsh is not deep, they tied a fork around their necks and
    Kept the nose under a few centimeters of water. “
    According to the correspondent of the Bulletin, such horrors are recent – “they are only twenty-five years old” – and they took place under the “passive eyes” of the English missionaries.
    “The memory is still alive in the memory of the people. In a people which has such habits of government, the sudden introduction of ours causes an explosion: the mixture is detonating. Will we finally understand that if men are equal, they are not alike? M. Laroche did not understand it, so Malagasy never had the idea of ​​greeting him when he passed in the street. “


    On the night of Monday, May 11, 1863, Radama II fell under the blows of the sicarians “sent by two enemy brothers, momentarily reconciled by the crime” (Ary Robin or MF Robinary, member of the National Association of Writers of the Sea and overseas). The author wants to talk about Raharo alias Rainivoninahitriniony and Tsimanosika alias Rainilaiarivony. Both of them “boast” of their crime. “Neither the cupidity nor the love of grandeur was for nothing in the accomplishment of this political act. We saw only the interest of the country. “
    According to Robinary, the true motives of regicide are of two kinds. First the need to consolidate the oligarchy hova created under Ranavalona I and threatened under Radama II by the influence of the “mignons” of the king, the Menamaso- “the debauched red-eyed”. Secondly, the necessity of nullifying the charter granted to Lambert. Both are sons of Rainiharo, during his lifetime Prime Minister of Ranavalona I and founder of the powerful oligarchy that dominates the whole history of Madagascar in the second half of the nineteenth century.
    Heir to the office of his father, Raharo is the Prime Minister in office. His younger brother will also become him after having supplanted his brother “that he should treat with the last ignominy, judge himself, load chains with his weight, exile.”
    This “extraordinary man” was born in the month of Alakaosy, regarded as detrimental to the highest degree by augurs. He is doomed to death from birth. He escapes, however, from the boiling water bath by two cruel expedients, “amputation of the right ring finger and application of a shameful nickname, Tsimanosika or the gradation, flattened”. At the birth of his son Laiarivony, Tsimanosika can finally raise his head. He takes, as is customary, the name of his future heir. “He came into history by calling himself Rainilaiarivony – the father of Laiarivony – and by displaying an irreducible hatred against France.” Raharo and Rainilaiarivony believe they have destroyed the Lambert Charter with the death of Radama II, nothing.
    Radama II expressed himself thus on November 9, 1861: “We authorize J. Lambert to form a company with the aim of exploiting the mines of Madagascar, forests and
    On the coasts and in the interior. The said Company shall have the right to create roads, canals, building yards, and public utility, to have coins bearing the effigy of the King; In a word, it will be able to do whatever it deems fit for the good of the country. We are committed to supporting this company with all our power, especially in helping and procuring workers. For its part, the company commits itself to us, by a loyal reciprocity, to help us according to its power in our projects of improvement and civilization of our country, remembering that it is founded in order to procure the good And the prosperity of our government. “
    This document is countersigned by Prime Minister Raharo to whom his brother Rainilaiarivony never forgives this endorsement. For the nationalists hova, roads, canals, construction sites constitute the paths and instruments of the invasion. Labor to be supplied and rewarded by coinage means the emancipation of slaves. Above all, they could not abolish the gratuitous chores which had hitherto been the strength of the monarchy, the power of great officers and dignitaries, and the sumptuous life of the dominant oligarchy.
    Instead of the Lambert money, Rainilaiarivony will use the currency of the Kingdon institution. The latter will issue piastres of lesser value than that of the ordinary, French, Brazilian, Swiss, Italian or other piastre. “Everyone hastened to profit by the windfall. All the silver having been thus drained into the coffers of Kingdon and Rainilaiarivony, it was astonished that the new piastres had been manufactured by counterfeiters. A riot nearly broke out. “
    The affair resulted in a claim by Napoleon III for Lambert of 1,200,000 francs in indemnity. The government of Ranavalona II, relieved by this settlement of accounts, refused to liquidate the estate of Jean Laborde and it was the first Franco-Merina war of 1883-1885. He also refused to fulfill the clauses of the treaty of 1885 (payment of an indemnity of 6 million francs), a pretext for the second Franco-Merina war, which ended with the protectorate of 1895 and the colonization of 1896.


    French interests in Madagascar appear to have been compromised at the beginning of 1824. Indeed, the demands of France for its “Rights” on Madagascar and the occupation by Sylvain Roux of Sainte-Marie in 1822 resulted in Radama I’s retaliation. The latter, already settled in Toamasina in 1817, had Foulpointe occupied in June 1822 by a troop of troops commanded by Governor Rafaralahy-Andriantiana, and then conquered the coastal areas to the north of that port, in particular Tintingue and Pointe At Larée opposite Sainte-Marie.
    The successive protests of the French agents did not alter the situation considered worrying by the governor of Bourbon, Freycinet, “caught between a whole series of contradictions, from the all theoretical views of the rights of France, to the notion down to earth Of the supply of his colony “(Jean Valette, archivist-paleographer).
    A solution must therefore be taken urgently, “whatever it may be”, to the problem of Anglo-Malagasy relations and Anglo-French relations. This solution came to him from the captain of artillery Carayon, on availability and installed in Sainte-Marie where he created with his friend Albrand a flourishing agricultural enterprise.
    Frequently informed of the Saint-Marien problems, in frequent contact with the betsimisaraka chiefs driven out by Radama I and refugees in the shadow of the French flag, Carayon arriving at Bourbon in December 1823, “was the personage appointed to provide the governor with Information to guide the policy to be presented to the Minister “. On the 3rd of February, 1824, Carayon drew up an account of the advantages to be obtained by France from an establishment in Madagascar, at the port of Tintingue, and on the most suitable means to be followed in succeeding it. A memorandum which Freycinet transmitted to the Minister by letter of 28 February.
    With an “all military” reasoning, Carayon believes that the best way to break the encirclement of Sainte-Marie is to found an establishment opposite Tintingue. But, according to Jean Valette, as well informed as he is, “Carayon is a man of his time, imbued with French theses, for which the famous Rights of France are an intangible point.”
    Moreover, “anglophobic insofar as the English were opposed to the French interests in Madagascar”, he does not seem to understand the motivations that push Radama to rely on the British. Hence the qualifications “absurd” or “ridiculous” that he gives to this policy of Radama. For him, the latter is “the plaything of the Englishmen who flatter his ambition and who, inciting the monarch to conquer the whole island, have only one preoccupation: to play to the French aims.” And for Jean Valette, his great mistake is not to grasp that there are two distinct policies, that of the English and that of Radama.
    In his analysis Carayon nevertheless understands that he is “an exceedingly ambitious man” who does not need to be encouraged to pursue a policy “deeply rooted in his mind: the conquest of Madagascar”. But he does not understand that Radama, conscious of the difficulties of this policy and pragmatic, seeks the means to carry it out. That is where the English intervene. “But it is certain that these English councils, which were certainly interested, merely fitted into Radama’s own plans. More than subjection of Radama to the English, there was rather tacit complicity between them, each using the other and each of the two parties was fully aware of it. “
    It is this complicity that Carayon does not perceive and “naively”, he believes that it would be easy to detach Radama from the English alliance to draw him into the French alliance. Alliance which, according to Jean Valette, would be equivalent for Radama to abandon its policy of conquest, “of which he had no intention whatsoever.” On the other hand, in the end of his Memoire, Carayon treats “more pertinently” the attitude of the Betsimisaraka vis-à-vis Radama, specifying however: “It is to be feared … that they do not end up making common cause With Radama when they see the latter leave in the utmost tranquility those who submit voluntarily to him. And indirectly, he recognizes “the political skill of Radama.”


    Every author especially the foreigners, have a rather tortuous vision of the royalty, or more exactly of the queens under the government of Rainilaiarivony. If the period between the protectorate (1895) and the colonization (1896) remains undecided, according to Jean Valette, archivist-paleographer, to understand the situation of the time it is necessary to go back to 1863.
    Radama II then reigned over the Imerina. Crazy about Western civilization, very human but light and overconfident, the monarch was assassinated by a “coterie of soldiers and wealthy bourgeois”. The authors of the regicide represent an oligarchy which, worried about the favors that Radama II grants to Europeans, fears for its privileges and concludes that only its disappearance can protect them.
    The leader of the conspiracy, Raharo or Rainivoninahitriniony who is not a noble but a commoner (Hova) places on the throne Rasoherina, a descendant of Andrianampoinimerina, the founder of the monarchy, and marries her. Subsequently, he is in turn overthrown by his own brother, Rainilaiarivony who takes the title of Prime Minister. He also married the queen, then at the death of the latter, Ranavalona II and finally Ranavalona III. Rainilaiarivony-le-Hova is thus the husband of three sovereigns.
    “Rasoherina translates into chrysalis. Ranavalona is the piece of cloth folded. These names
    Images were not necessary to mark the abasement in which the oligarchy had placed the crown. Let us remember that no law could be passed without the consent of the chiefs of the people. “
    Professor Deschamps writes in Histoire de Madagascar, “the queen is a precious flag, carefully folded, that one only goes out in the great days of solemn kabary. We speak in her name, she keeps a little prestige quasi-divine of her ancestors. The question is whether Ranavalona III is more than that.
    In 1883, widow at 22, she married the Prime Minister. At the time, it was already “a barbon” that, for twenty years, governed the country with the greatest energy. Alfred Durand in The Last Days of the Court hova describes it thus: “Weak therefore influencable, the queen did not understand the colonial revolution. Ignorantly, she believed that France was situated within a few days of filanjana in Antananarivo. Some say she is mostly preoccupied with toilets, jewelery and walks, politics does not interest her. In her Journal of my stewardship with S. Rainilaiarivony, Vassé declares that, at first, she scarcely displays grief at seeing her husband kept in sight, and then exiled to Algiers in February 1896.
    Ranavalona III preserves her court, her palace, her toilets, her servants, and “the French free her from her old husband” (Jean Valette). She was very afraid after taking her capital, but “reassured by the turn that events had taken, she condemned what could disturb her tranquility.”
    Thus instigated by the French by the ordinance of May 1, 1896, published in the Gazety Malagasy, it gives fifteen days to the Fahavalo (insurgents) to submit under penalty of seeing their property confiscated and their slaves liberated. On May 7, she held a large speech reported in the same newspaper. She criticizes the authors of false news and condemns the revolt. “She uses a style that could not have been dictated to her by Western thought. She goes further, accepts that the French flag floats on her palace, responds to Laroche’s invitations, opens her palace to the Europeans.
    The slightest annoyance takes her by surprise, “revealing a weak and frivolous character.” Thus the famous collection for the “rebellion” undertaken in his name and which “was only a vulgar swindle” (3rd report of fortnight of Hippolyte Laroche) as well as the prohibition that Bourde, the secretary-general, To visit one day in his
    Suburban property and “threw it into despair” (Ninth Ninth Report).
    Until the twentieth century, there was nothing to suggest or suspect any collusion between the Queen and the insurgents. A seized courier would even establish that she had “resolutely accepted the new situation” (15th Report). In fact according to Jean Valette, “the queen was only an idol, her power the reflection of that of a high priest, the prime minister. When the latter had disappeared, the queen was no more. The monarchy was extinguished in 1863 “.
    Hence it is “unjust and vain to ask of her what she could not give, for her speeches were in no way susceptible of reaching the troops of the rebellion, composed of illiterate and superstitious persons without contact with the capital.”


     Under the First Republic, the National Assembly and the Senate have important but temporary working tools. It is the commissions of inquiry or control whose members are held incommunicado.
    The commissions of inquiry collect information on the facts that determined their creation. They submit their findings to the House from which they come. The role of supervisory commissions is to examine the management of public services. They do not, however, have the power to nominate permanent subcommittees and are necessarily of a temporary nature.
    According to the Rules of Procedure of the Assemblies, the creation of these bodies of investigation and control results from the vote of a motion for a resolution which determines either the facts giving rise to the investigation or the services to be checked. When the Minister of Justice announced that legal proceedings were pending on these facts, the Commission of Inquiry closed its proceedings.
    However, Organic Law No. 5 of 9 June 1959 imposes certain restrictions on the establishment and functioning of commissions of inquiry. Thus, it is forbidden to set up such a body if the facts give rise to legal proceedings. Like supervisory commissions, they can not be reconstituted for the same purpose “before the expiry of a period of 12 months from the end of their mission”.
    Similarly, unless a decision of the Chamber concerned is made, publication of the committee report is prohibited. Those who do or disclose information relating to unpublished work, deliberations, acts and reports are punishable by the penalties of article 378 of the Criminal Code.
    As a result, and in general, the public is not informed of the conclusions of the work of these committees. Moreover, “the need to create them is rare in a state where power is strong and public services are well organized and directed” (Bertrand Mounier, Doctor of Law).
    Parliamentarians are grouped into groups (political, trade union, etc.), but each can belong to only one. Those who do not belong to any group can be compared to the one of their choice. Thus designated senators form the group of non-members.
    However, the structure of the groups remains rather loose, the discipline of voting and speaking is not very strict. Inside the hemicycle, the members of the various groups are dispersed and mixed among themselves, the choice of places seems to result more from personal affinities than from political considerations. “Nevertheless, the groups play an important role in the functioning of the Assembly through the participation of their leaders in the Conference of Presidents and, above all, by the formation of general committees which operate under the system of proportional representation Based on group size. “
    Each House has, as it does today, standing and specialized committees whose role is to study draft laws and to prepare the debates. In general, they are insufficient to control a ministry. They may appoint sub-committees and, if they deem it advisable, refer the consideration of certain cases to a special committee formed by the Commission.
    Finally, several commissions are sometimes called upon to work together on a given subject. No member of the House of Commons may be a member of, or a member of, more than two committees.
    Convened by their chairman, the committees do not have fixed days to meet. All members of the House may attend and participate in debates, but only members of the committee may vote or propose amendments. Likewise, members of the Government have the power to attend their meetings and to speak as much as the Committees may consult with all persons who appear to them useful to hear.
    At the end of the debate, decisions taken by an absolute majority, the rapporteur of the committee shall draw up a report as a basis for debate in plenary or public session.
    It should be emphasized that Article 35 of the First Constitution stipulates that: “Proposals and amendments formulated by members of the Assemblies shall not be admissible if their adoption would result in either a reduction in public resources or the creation or aggravation of a” A public office. “


    Two opinions published in the Official Journal of Madagascar of
    7 April 1951, provide importers with quotas totaling 457 000 000 metropolitan francs for the import of cotton fabrics. These additional credits are in addition to the quotas normally provided for under the various trade agreements. Since January 1950, these amount to 666,490,000 metropolitan francs for cotton goods.
    The new allocation, almost equal to the total appropriations provided for in the agreements, between ‘in the context of so-called shock imports intended to affect the cost of living by the mass introduction of goods at a lower price than those Provided by the Metropole “(economic chronicler of the Bulletin of Madagascar, May 16, 1951). It is, therefore, similar to that notified in January 1950, but much larger, ie 457,000,000 for
    Cotton fabrics. In addition,
    103,000,000 metropolitan francs for various sectors such as clothing, footwear, textiles, household goods, tools, tires, sewing machines, and 450 tons of condensed milk. In all, 610 000 000 against 409 000 000 metropolitan francs for the previous financial year.
    “Despite the rise in prices since then, the advantage is appreciable because, for cotton goods, we benefit from 487 million francs metropolitan francs against 225 million francs in 1950.” This is due to the fact that during This last year, Madagascar does not yet benefit from the liberalization of trade applied in France and other overseas territories. This, owing to the suspension since 1943, of customs duties on entry into the Territory. In return, larger credits are allocated to the island.
    Moreover, this measure is made more efficient because it is planned to grant 360,000,000 metropolitan francs to Madagascar in the form of global quotas. For this credit, imports may be made indifferently from one of the countries belonging to the Organization for European Economic Co-operation.
    Austria, Denmark, Great Britain, Greece, the Irish Free State, Iceland, Italy, Norway, the Netherlands, Portugal, Sweden, Switzerland, the Belgo-Luxembourg Union, ‘Added other European countries like Cyprus, Gibraltar, Malta and Trieste. There are also Asian States (Arabia, Bahrain, Kuwait), Hong Kong, Malaysia and other British territories, the Netherlands Indies and the Portuguese Territories. On the African continent, we can mention the Belgian Territories, British East Africa (Kenya, Uganda, Tanganyika), Zanzibar, Mauritius, Seychelles, the Portuguese Territories, Mozambique and the Italian Territories. On the American continent: the Dutch Territories, the British Territories. And finally the British Territories of Oceania.

    According to the economic chronicler, the new measures taken to introduce global quotas suggest that the provisioning of the Territory can not, except in new circumstances, become precarious, especially in basic necessities. “All the more so because, in many countries, a wider grouping of import entries was planned, at least at the end of the agreement. “
    “These new horizons must compensate for the disappearance of the Marshall Plan for procurement, practically carried out since the end of 1949, while in the field of equipment, the Marshall dollars are relayed by regular program dollars, Europe, Germany in particular, and EFAC dollars (the creation of the EFAC accounts having since August 1950 increased the percentage of the proceeds of their sales which may benefit the exporters for various purchases of goods in the dollar zone). “
    Nevertheless, the author also notes that the possibilities of imports are conditioned for certain products by the scarcity of offers from supplier countries. The introduction of “global quotas” to expand can certainly overcome to some extent this new difficulty, but it is still difficult to obtain cotton offers on Hindustan. This country has difficulties in supplying fiber because of tension between its government and that of its supplier, Pakistan. A similar situation arises for Portugal. “These two countries were the ones with the lowest cotton prices on the world market. “
    Finally, the relations envisaged with the neighboring countries of Madagascar, the Union of South Africa and Kenya, in particular, will make it possible to give the island a closer supply and less expensive freight for several important commodities at the same time Than new export opportunities. “A trial in this area has been tried with butter and has made it possible, to the satisfaction of all consumers, to offer a quality product at a lower price for retail.”



    Very few fishermen in Lake Tampolo live only on fishing, and many have rice fields, some of the cattle. It is certain that in Tampolo, as on practically all the lakes of Madagascar, the inhabitants content themselves with capturing sufficient quantities to ensure a minimum subsistence
    In addition, fishermen are obliged to respect “fomba” (customs) and “fady” (prohibited). Thus, in the past, nets were “fady” (use defended by custom), “but it was not really an absolute prohibition, but rather a non-use of certain gear by the ancestors” (A Kiener, Senior Inspector of the Directorate of Water and Forests, 1960).
    For a long time, the net is known in Madagascar, in particular the net-seine made of “hafotra” ropes. But in Tampolo, the custom, for reasons perhaps forgotten, forbade the net. “It’s only fairly recently that fishermen are tempted by its use, because of the large increases in production that it makes possible. “
    Is also “fady”, the use of poison, especially that of the latex of a poisonous plant called “jemby”, whose bark is crushed and poured into the water. Fish die, but remain edible. “This poison is sometimes used today (1960), but fortunately quite rarely and its use constitutes an offense. “
    A Raiamandreny (patriarch) of the fishermen of Rantolava tells the author the legend of the “lolorano” of the lake, evil evil spirit that can cause the death of human beings. When he wants to manifest himself, his action is preceded by the sudden appearance of a rainbow. At that moment, the canoe of his victim capsizes and she dies by drowning.
    It is also traditional to kill an ox each year on the point of land that advances into the large central basin, in order to purge the lake of any impurity.
    Another legend, but very pretty, is that of the Zazavavindrano or nymphs of the waters that live near the “vinany” (mouths). Moreover, “the word vinany which means maminany, that is to say, the dream of two waters (which meet), is not it already in itself very poetic”
    Legend has it that these nymphs inhabit the dune that forms near the exit of the waters or the neighboring areas. In fact, men have always accumulated floating tree trunks in a calm zone, near the mouths, so that they can come to live or rest there. At the moment when the “vinany” yields under the thrust of the waters, the fishermen keep as much as possible these trees to avoid the departure of these divinities to the sea.
    When it is desirable for the dune to give way under their thrust, the legend has it that these Zazavavindrano prepare with their little hands the way to the waters that have to go to the sea. But since they are not very Strong and unable to dig enough dune, it is usual for fishermen to help them by digging a canal.
    For this work, the use of iron is formally prohibited so as not to hurt these young ladies hidden under the sand. Because of this, the inhabitants only use wooden paddles. If the work proves to be long and painful, an ox is killed to give strength to the workers. To the delight of all, the village eventually celebrates the expected miraculous fisheries with declining waters and the providential return of fish.