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  • #258
    Madagascar
    Keymaster

    From August 7 to 21, the Alliance Française of Andavamamba offers interesting brain exercises to be practiced in a convivial traditional Malagasy games.

    Rakotoma-lala Nirina, a young third-year polytechnic student in Votovorona, came with her younger brothers to entertain themselves on a part of Uno Boom. Malala, a young woman of twenty-four years old, is currently playing Scrabble to enrich her vocabulary in French. Valisoa, a young student in fourth class at the General Education College of Antanimbarinan-driana is interested in the game of lady.
    Each of the tables arranged in the hall of the Alliance Française of Andavamamba offers a specific discipline: a thousand terminals, Scrabble, “Katro”, “Fanorona”, Uno Boom, Yugi-oh, belote, , Bridge, among others. Young and old alike enjoy it with great pleasure. Some are there to discover the rules of these games to which they are not familiar. Others play skillfully and intelligently measure themselves against their table opponents. The twenty-second edition of the Games Fair, held from 7 to 21 August, was able to gather its faithful followers from the first day.
    Cultural Discovery
    With the sixteen disciplines available to visitors, it is very likely to be tempted for a small part, history to make work its neurons and have a good time with family or friends. Monitors assist beginners.
    “This first week is devoted to the introduction to the various disciplines that this show offers to the general public. There are traditional Malagasy games like “katro”, “fanorona”. There is also the “game of Rova”. They deserve to be known. To make known and transmit these Malagasy board games are among our objectives. Other games from elsewhere have educational interests and offer the same fun for the whole family. “Says Manitra Harimisa Razafindrabe, a member of the association organising the event. This fair targets the people who stay in the capital during this holiday period, mainly young people. Competitions are planned for each discipline during the week of 14 August.

    #261
    Madagascar
    Keymaster

    he new Silk Road. It is being discussed today as an idea that will further confirm China’s sprawling place on the world economic scene, if it has not already done so. That is why not a chance to revive the ancient maritime Silk Road, authentic and historic, especially as some of its implications throw another light on the history of Madagascar and the Malagasy silk. We need this article to knowledge and passion for this country of the historian-anthropologist, also a full member of the Malagasy Academy, Jean-Pierre Domenichini, we had the pleasure of welcoming in the columns of Bemiray. Zoky Raiamandreny, you have the floor!

    Ancient Time – The Silk Sea Road

    Spinning of silk and its weaving is undoubtedly one of the oldest techniques in the history of mankind. It seems attested from the third millennium before Christ in the Far East, in the south of what is now the Chinese space. The historian begins to assume the existence of a trade in the Indian Ocean in the fourth century before Christ, when he saw the arrival of spices Indies in the Mediterranean and cinnamon on the table of Herodotus. Then in the time of Augustus, besides spices, this trade also involved other products. Among the most important included silk, the great Roman families awaiting the arrival each year.
    According to Pliny the Elder, the silk trade was in the hands of the Seres, “silk men” that Orientalists like Pelliot and Needham identified him once, with the Chinese. The silk road that already existed in the Red Sea, led to Adulis. Browsers were Austronesians southern Chinese space and Southeast Asia. Already in the second century BC, Emperor Wudi had authorized the pilgrimage to Buddhist monks to use the ships of “Kun Lun” and probably the boats Champa “land of black men,” the mandarins called “Lin-yi” when they discovered it later. Since that time, the Austronesian built large boats sewn sail, the “Kun-lun-bo” or boats black men, and can be identified as the “koliandio phonta” navigating between India and Asia South East. The science of navigation and the construction of “Kun Lun” Austronesian became when Chinese mandarins recorded it, which allowed Joseph Needham to write that “Ethiopia and East Africa have been known to Chinese traders from the first century before the Christian era. “

    The Austronesian sales network in the Indian Ocean had uncovered the island of Madagascar where the first visitors came, no doubt, to exploit the resources of the foreshore (cucumber, ambergris, tortoiseshell …) and to assess the possibilities of the forest. Then, in the maritime and colonial tradition of Austronesian, the island was the subject of settlement companies, parts of Southeast Asia. With the techniques that these early settlers brought with them, it is likely that we can count spinning and weaving silk. Recent ethnology work, it appears, in fact, that the loom Madagascar is in Indonesia to a profession that is said and summary that is used for cotton, silk weaving are requiring more complex model. This suggests that the Malagasy craft was brought by settlers to an ancient time when it affected the silk had not yet been perfected.
    Beautiful work of Malagasy weavers
    In the archives preserved in the British Museum, figure the testimony of Reunion Creole caterer who had attended Madagascar before 1750, discoursing at length the work of Malagasy weavers and fabrics they produced: “They are loincloths who vie with our soyeries and so can compete with fabrics manufactures Lion that was forced to make defend the importation into the kingdom (…) it is with little means they are fabrics that attract the admiration of connoisseurs. They are still working women to dyes. The colors that are caught in the silk and cotton take much better than the Indians. “
    For silk, nature offered cocoons of wild silkworms. In the seventeenth century Flacourt distinguish four kinds of silk, more or less fine and strong as the silkworm and the plant from which it fed. If the interior provinces were providing a lot, “the thinnest and strongest of all was that the worm installed in coastal filao stands and gave the landin’anakao”. The scientific and agronomic works of the twentieth century did not have retained only one, the “landibe” (borocera cajani) who lives on the Tapia. It happened also that it has been high on the pigeonpea. This is against a small silkworm, the “landikely”, which rises in the silkworm. We do not know the exact date of its introduction, if indeed it ever was.
    Under the monarchy, work and wearing silk were regulated. To preserve the quality of this material “divine and alive”, spinning and weaving were banned during the year of a royal mourning. Originally, only the nobles could clothe, but were excluded those whose parents were still alive, or had had contact with the impurity of biological death. These beautiful old silk, it no longer exists in a museum collection of Madagascar. It is however important in London, joined by missionaries in the nineteenth century. There is also the “lambda” purchased by Ralph Linton between 1925 and 1927, and are at the Field Museum in Chicago.
    Editor’s note: To find the beautiful creations of their past, the Malagasy are therefore obliged to draw a road of very special silk which concerns only they. And they did would bring a deep nostalgia, mixed perhaps with an angry frustration …

     

    #339
    Madagascar
    Keymaster

    Between the protectorate of 1895 and the colonization of 1896, the French colonists reduced to inaction because of the Menalamba, live in exasperation. Seized with spyness, they note, comment, amplify “the least of candlelight games coming from the royal residence”.
    Hippolyte Laroche, resident general, responsible for security, can hardly count on them, let alone the soldiers who show the greatest misunderstanding. Although Protestant, he counted on the help of the Catholic missionaries, since in the minds of the Malagasy of the time, Catholic means French and English Protestant. He sent a letter to the superior of the Trappe de Staoueli in Algeria inviting him to send some clergymen to Madagascar, whom he promised protection and support. The objective being “the moral and peaceful conquest of a country, of which we are still only the military conquerors”.
    However, the system of the protectorate alienated him the sympathy of the Jesuits who evangelize the island, especially the central provinces. Out of respect for the “native personality,” and out of mistrust of an “anticlerical metropolis,” they desire the protectorate.
    On the other hand, the queen is a Protestant, as is the royal government, with whom the resident general wants and has to work. And by his attitude, “he does not confirm the ancient division of two religions that are the flags of two nations. “
    Protestants, plundered and persecuted by the Fahavalo (Menalamba), see the collapse of the work of almost a century and implore the French protection. For their part, Catholics claim that they are the only victims and that the “rebels” receiving their orders from the royal Protestant government “can destroy temples only by mistake.” However, if from November 1895 to September 1896, 115 Catholic chapels and schools were burnt or sacked, more than 600 Protestant churches and institutions suffered the same fate.
    Moreover, the Church does not give up the idea that the temporal power should be helped. The words, pronounced at the Sorbonne by Father Piollet, fully illustrate the Catholic position. “Was it too much to demand of her a complete freedom, mingled with a little benevolence,” he wonders.
    He answers it himself. “For thirty-five years she had been fighting to support and defend French influence. This influence had come to triumph definitively: who could have complained that it took advantage of it to develop in justice and freedom under the eyes of the Administration “
    Then come the reproaches. “If we had done this firmly, without weakness, but also without violence, the Catholic mission would have developed rapidly and the Protestant missions – I could not have any doubt in this regard – would have diminished quickly, would have weakened, Themselves in a relatively short space of time. Thus, we would have had an entirely Catholic colony. “
    Jean Baptiste Piollet explains that this would have happened “by the mere fact that the Protestants had lost the support of the Hova government, and by the mere fact that the vast majority of our officers, employees and settlers were Catholics.”
    In reply, Hippolyte Laroche wrote to Minister Lebrun. “They are fanatics, they are capable of everything to try to develop their proselytism and to defeat their emulators. They have an interest in confusing the cause of France with theirs. This confusion, if it occurs, will be fatal to the cause of France. France must observe religious neutrality. “
    Like the soldiers and settlers, the Jesuit missionaries also demanded examples, that is to say, the heads of the members of the royal government. “Since the rebels claim to act in the name of the Queen, since all the people believed, it was necessary to act against the royal power, a corrupt and dilapidated power. “
    Not seeing the contradiction that these statements imply, the “conquerors” are indignant at the attitude of Laroche. “By honoring the merina government, it encourages revolt. There is nothing, however, to suggest or even suspect any collusion between the queen and the rebels. The officer in charge of escorting her on the road to exile reports that she is afraid of seeing her convoy attacked by the Menalamba.

    #340
    Madagascar
    Keymaster

    Superstitious, authoritarian, cruel, inflexible, xenophobic, exacerbated. Thus his contemporaries depict the character of Ranavalona I, wife and cousin of Radama I. It inherits power in accordance with the wishes of Andrianampoinimerina. It will have to reign in Antananarivo for one third of a century (1828-1861).
    In fact, at the beginning of his reign, on the contrary, he was much appreciated by his subjects, who, in short, could live far from the continual troubles and incessant labors which marked the reign of his two predecessors. Thus, for example, she watches over the maintenance of schools and their development, or promotes the emergence of musical taste among her subjects. She herself set an example to enhance her court by subsidizing two illustrious women in charge of training the royal singers “Mpiantsa”.
    Also family celebrations and reunions, happy or sad events are so many opportunities to sing. Moreover, Antananarivo owes much to this sovereign and to Jean Laborde, his adviser and agent in a field rich of activities and results. “For it would be a mistake to believe that Ranavalona condemns without restraint all that is European. “
    But soon, with certain symptoms, it finds that its authority risks being shaken and that the interference of Europeans will eventually put an end to the independence of Madagascar. It then reacts violently under the pressure, according to historians, of the party of traditionalists and conservatives: Prime Minister Rainiharo, the soothsayers and sorcerers, worried about the progress of civilization and Christianity. To clarify that Ranavalona Ire has four prime ministers during his reign: Rainimahay, then the young and beautiful Andriamihaja, father of Radama II, is believed, finally Rainiharo and Rainijohary, commander-in-chief of the Army.
    Among these symptoms, there is an onset of revolution which she suspects the English of being the authors. It thus tears apart the treaties made with England since 1817, and resumes the slave trade more and more thanks to the opportunities offered by the markets of India, America and the Mascarenes. “The Rova then appears as a nest of raptors, great slave traders in the service of sugar industry and culture” (Robequain, a mountain capital in tropical countries: Antananarivo).
    Subsequently, on 1 October 1829, Captain Gourbeyre, designated by France, took Tintingue and bombarded Toamasina “to avenge the affront which she considered to have done to her under Radama.” French troops, however, are forced to retreat before the Hova army.
    In 1832, it prohibited slave children from attending schools, as some were already insubordinate and claimed to escape their servile status. In 1834, it intended to limit to the only schools controlled by its government the teaching of reading and writing, in order to proscribe “the spread of Christian morality, pernicious to the traditions”. The following year, the Kabary of the 1st of March forbade all his subjects to collaborate in any way with the missionaries. Having no longer any reason for being, one by one they leave the country.
    This is the signal of the beginning of the persecutions against the Christians, who then organized themselves into “indigenous sects, whose members frustrate the royal power. The Society of Prayers who preaches modernism is the best known. Many of them do not know everything about Christ, but just as it happened in Rome, it is in the name of Christ that they rise up. The lower castes and the malcontents formed the clientele of the Christian rebels “(Tananarive, essays on its origins, its development, its present state, Revue de Madagascar, Spécial Tananarive 1952).
    In turn, the Europeans who remained in the capital are also affected by the measures of royal reaction, because “they can not be compromised in the rebellion that broods”. On May 13, 1845, a special law was enacted by the Queen, under which traders and merchants were obliged to leave the island or to be subjected to the royal corvees, to all works and even to the “tangena”.
    The Europeans hunted down, Ranavalona and Rainiharo embarked on repression. For nearly ten years, 200,000 capital executions would have taken place. With the death of Rainiharo in 1852, a more liberal period seems to open. But a plot was formed to bring Prince Rakoto, the legitimate heir to power: the Queen chased the few Europeans still present, whose brains of the plot, Jean Laborde and Lambert, in 1858, the regime of terror resumed until death Of Ranavalona Ire in 1861.

    #341
    Madagascar
    Keymaster

    At the end of December 1898, the insurrection was dislocated and dispersed in the central part of the kingdoms of the Northwest. In the littoral region, it lacks cohesion and thus escapes before the batterings of the group of Captain Laverdure.
    In the Sambirano, where he has been absent for a month, no act of hostility is reported. “There was a general malaise in the population. It is a state analogous to that which existed in Imerina, from the beginning of the restoration of order after the insurrection. The means that have been so successful there are ideal to be applied here “(Ambala-velona or the anticolonial insurgency in the north-west of Madagascar in 1898 by Cassam Aly Ndandahizara).
    On 23 December the commander of the annexed Circle of the Great Earth finished organizing the province of Anala-lava into six sectors and submitted it to the general-in-chief, who made no changes. All he had to do was to unite these divisions into military sectors, which were immediately provided with a responsible leader.
    “Patrols and reconnaissances had to travel the country, reassure and rally the people, protect the villages that were rebuilding, avoid depredations and ensure a constant connection with neighboring posts. “
    Also on 23 December, a postal service was organized to ensure regular communications with all sector centers. And on the 30th of the same month, first-degree courts are organized in each sector, instructions given to disarm the population.
    A few months later, Lamolle, a battalion commander, drew up a report on the situation in the annexed Circle of the Great Earth in March-July 1899.
    “The military situation of the Cercle annex is satisfactory. The Dzaokely band, which had its headquarters at Amboromalandy in the Ambatoaranana area, was dispersed on 16 March by Lieutenant Penfentenyio de Kervereguin. It was the last refuge of the remnants of the rebellion, 550 oxen were kidnapped. They will be returned to their owners after investigation. “
    In the area of ​​Ambatoaranana, 650 rifles and 200 sagaies are recovered in a short time thanks to the zeal of the lieutenant of Penfentenyo and the second lieutenant Sheer that the king Tsialana has seconded in this operation. This will continue until complete disarmament of the population. In the area of ​​Sambirano, Lieutenant Bailly-Masson receives rebels 30 rifles including a model 74, and 276 sagaies.
    Captain Laverdure, commanding officer of the Circle, went on a tour in the north of his riding and found that “everything was quiet now.” He remained on 20 April in Ankifiny, where he brought back the lieutenant of Penfentenyo, who was to serve as Chancellor of the Circle.
    On 24 May, he captured the rebel leaders Dzaokely, Mataopiso, Angalisy and Soatra. He thus remains to catch up the leader Karidza in flight. In July, the creation of two new posts – one in Ambakirano on the top of Mananjeba, between Ambatoaranana and Beramanja, the other in the south of Amboromalandy – will help to completely restore calm in this part of the Circle. Some “pillagers” are still hiding there, as is proved by some skirmishes around Beramanja.
    The postal service and the judicial system are established in the Cercle annex and the administrative organization is being revised to be final. But if the order is re-established in the Circle, the surveillance of the territory remains delicate. “It has to dominate the occult power of the kings of the country, its population is independent, the country having never had military occupation. The natives possess a large quantity of weapons which they easily procured before the French conquest at Nosy Be and Diego-Suarez. “
    Certainly the people of Queen Binao have handed over 450 rifles of various models and more than 500 sagaies to Captain Jourdan, but those of King Tsiaraso and especially King Tsialana must hold more. “The complete security of this country will therefore be truly guaranteed only when the commander of the annexed Circle has returned these weapons. It will not be easy because the Antankarana are keen to parade. “

    #342
    Madagascar
    Keymaster

    The submission in 1897 of the inveterate and recognized leader of the Fahavalo (enemies, a word used by the French colonizers to call insurgents) from the north, the famous Rabezavana, is greeted with strong congratulations by the new masters of Madagascar.
    A chronicler of the Bulletin of the Committee of Madagascar takes the opportunity to draw the portrait (right or wrong) of this great chief sakalava as he perceives it. According to him, Rabezavana was initially, under the royalty Merina, the leader of a band composed of Sakalava and defectors hova. He traveled the bush of Vonizongo to Mandri-tsara. “The annual expeditions which desolated this region were made under his orders or those of his lieutenants. “
    The intelligent Prime Minister Rainilaiarivony, to stop him in his raids, does not hesitate and appoints him governor of Antsatrana. Rabezavana is flexible and unbridled in these new functions. “He continued his former expeditions, but when his soldiers showed a little too much embarrassment and robbed the villages in his district, he went to war, limited the plunder, divided the fire, sent his retreats with a chosen booty . Then he wrote to Antananarivo: “I have driven out the Fahavalo! “
    At the time of the campaign of 1895, Rabezavana attacked the last troops of the flying column at Sabotsy, taking on the left of the French convoy on the heights from Ankazobe. At the time of the surrender of the capital, he set sail with his troops. And since then, he “walks” from east to west, “as fast in his conceptions as in his movements, attacking one day at Vonizongo, jumping from there to the numerous encampments he had established in the forest, Encouraging the rebellion, writing letters to Antananarivo, some of which were read at the Rainandriamampandry trial, indefatigable and impregnable. “
    On his own initiative, he took the rank of general officer of 15 honors. “He wrote to the queen, threatening to hang her if she did not support the revolt. At the same time, he addressed Prince Ramahatra: “Be with me and you will be king. According to the French chronicler, Prince Ramahatra reportedly handed the letter to the French authorities. On the other hand, Queen Ranavalona III keeps his own, “which Rainan-driamampandry had probably communicated to him, although he did not want to admit it until death.”
    To bring Rabezavana’s submission after the departure of Colonel Combes-known for his brutal, violent, destructive, and without distinguishing his targets in his operations of pacification-an emissary is needed. Rainianjanoro is chosen. It is a Tsiarondahy, a man of confidence of Rasanjy who proposes it in this mission, former gold seeker in the Boeny and the North. Above all, he had a close relationship with Rabezavana. Immediately, he went to the latter’s camp, presented him with the French proposals to submit. After careful reflection, Rabezavana would have accepted on condition that the emissaries were held hostage. He first sent his father to submit to Captain Reymond.
    Two days later, Rabezavana becomes prisoner after leaving Rainianjanoro in the hands of his troops in exchange for his life. Finally, having received guarantees, he calls his soldiers to join him.
    “Immediately, our enemy of the previous day has set to work and alongside our troops, it completes pacifying the region. “
    Thus the junction is made between Upper Betsiboka and Upper Mahajamba, between Ambatondrazaka and Moramanga, between Moramanga and Ambohimanga. For the French, the victory would be complete without the “last rebel”, Rainibetsimisaraka. He tries to provoke among the Tanala “a rebellion promptly repressed,” but the consequence of which is the assassination of a European merchant who traveled alone from Ambositra to Mananjary. But for the colonizers, it is already the end for him. “Moved now in the thick part of the forest, abandoned by his lieutenant Ramampanjaka who made his submission, he will be caught or will soon surrender. The defection of Rabezavana is going to do him a terrible blow: it is a matter of days. “

    #343
    Madagascar
    Keymaster

    “Vy, Vato, Sakelika” or “Iron, stone, ramification”. It is the name of an association – at the cultural origin – of young people, composed mainly of medical students and which was formed about 1912 around a French pastor.
    At that time, any indigenous organization is illegal, so the VVS is banned by the Colonial Administration, and passes for a secret association. In 1915 she was accused of fomenting a conspiracy against France, and particularly of organizing the general poisoning of all the drinking water wells of the French in the capital by 31st December at 9 pm.
    Forty-one young people appear before the indigenous court, including a number of medical students, including future Raseta and Ravoahangy politicians, with a priest, two brothers from the Christian schools, pastors, Writers like Ny Avana Ramanantoanina …
    Some are acquitted, but most are subjected to various penalties of forced labor under a law of the Malagasy code, therefore prior to the French occupation. This law provides for excessive penalties for mere intentions or for offenses of opinion. However, all the condemned are, a few years later, amnestied.
    One of the first Madagascan priests, Venance Manifatra (1862-1826), comes from the Sakalava tribe of Faseny, near Hellville on the island of Nosy Be. He spent forty-five years of religious life in the Society of Jesus and was recognized as “a great trainer of men, a tireless worker, endowed with a truly cultivated spirit and an artist’s soul” (Régis Rajemisa-Raolison ). He is the author of many melodious hymns and several collections of short stories written in Malagasy, to quote only “Atsy ary”, “with a refined flavor”.
    Involved in the VVS affair in 1915, Venance Manifatra was incarcerated in the company of the Raphael and Julien brothers, which enabled her to write an article entitled “A Madagascan Jesuit in Prison” (Revue des Jésuites: Les Études).
    Brother Louis Rafiringa (1854-1917) “who honors his congregation by his piety, his firmness in Christian doctrine and his devotion,” is a native of Antananarivo. He became one of the youngest Malagasy schoolteachers whom Brother Gonzalvien could join. Son of the chief of the blacksmiths of Ranavalona I, he is with Victoire Rasoamanarivo, the support of the young Catholic Church during the difficult hours when the French missionaries must leave the island during the two Franco-Merina wars.
    In 1915, he was also involved in the so-called VVS case. At the age of sixty, “it is with the courage and resignation of a true religious that he endures the ill-treatment of a prisoner,” during the fifty-seven days he has left.

    Brother Raphael Rafiringa is also one of Malagasy literary luminaries of his time and is distinguished by pamphlets of spirituality and pedagogical manuals which testify to a vast culture and a deep knowledge of Malagasy. He is, moreover, designated by the Malagasy Academy, together with other confreres, to translate into French the “Tantara ny andriana” of Father Callet.
    Pastor Ravelojaona (1879-1956), a very influential figure in Malagasy society, is known in the triple title of “mpitandrina, a social-political man and a literate end”. Managing several newspaper titles, he showed his enthusiasm for the social formation of young people, hence his involvement in the VVS affair.
    In May 1939, he was elected delegate of the indigenous peoples of all Madagascar to the French Superior Council of Overseas France, a position he kept until 1946. This enabled him to take care of the Madagascan soldiers in France during Of the Second World War. In 1946, he again put his candidature for the deputation of indigenous peoples, with the program the progressive Independence of Madagascar. But he is beaten by Dr. Ravoahangy-Andrianavalona, ​​promoter of Integral Independence. It is known that six months after his election, Ravoahangy adopts, in a few nuances, the program of Pastor Ravelojaona.
    The latter’s line of conduct in anti-colonial politics has always been dictated by the Malagasy saying: “Aza manai-boron-kotifirana”, in other words, “do not frighten the birds you are about to shoot”.

    #344
    Madagascar
    Keymaster

    We devote this Note to some great women, little known as much as the Malagasy sovereigns, but who, at their level, have each contributed to the history of the Imerina. They are, in general, wives or daughters of kings.
    Thus of Ranavalonandriambelo- masina who is the eldest daughter of Andriambelomasina and the mother of the famous king Andrianampoini-merina. She marries Andriamia-ramanjaka, Lord of Anjafy, near Kaloy, north of Ambohimanga. It is known that for reasons that are still difficult to understand, Andria-nampoinimerina determines that the successors to the throne of Antananarivo would be taken, preferably, in the branch of women: his mother, grandmother Rasoherimananitany, His sister Ralesoka, his nieces Rabodonandriantompo and Ratavanandriana.
    Among the ancestors of the great monarch, one can also cite Rangorinimerina, mother of Andriam- belomasina and wife of Andrian-tsimitoviaminandriandrazaka, that of the sons of Andria-masinavalona- the elder who reigns in Ambohimanga.
    One can also evoke some of his many women. Rabodonimerina is the first. By itself, nothing attaches itself to its name. But since she can not have children, she adopts two brothers, Rakotovahiny and her eldest Rabodolahy. The latter is, in principle, the oldest of the children of Andrianampoinimerina. However, he is noted for his assassination attempts against his adoptive father and the young prince Ledama.
    Ramanantenasoa, princess of Alasora, is the mother of Ramavolahy the bearded, eldest son of Andrianampoinimerina. Woman of remarkable beauty and “no less great frivolity,” she is said to be the daughter of Andria-navalonjafy, king of Alasora defeated by the great monarch.
    Ramavolahy, it is said, inherits the defects of his mother. And he, too, wanted to make an attempt on his father’s life towards the end of his days.
    Rambolamasoandro, cousin of Andrianampoinimerina, is queen of Ambohidratrimo. At the moment when the king of Ambohimanga acceded to the throne, he married her to seal the political union of his subjects, the Tsimahafotsy, and those of Rambolamasoandro, the Marovatana. This is Ledama’s mother. The latter denounces her to her father for committing adultery.
    From the territory of Alasora, Andrianampoinimerina also takes for wife Rabodozafi-manjaka, daughter of the wren Ratsira, also ousted during the extension of the territory of Ambohimanga. Andrianampoinimerina places her at the head of the Mamoladahy (Antsaha-dinta and its surroundings) and she is helped by her father. However, when the latter dies, she is confronted with the clan of her half-brothers who persist in wanting to inherit their father Ratsira. Intestine struggles broke out, culminating in the fragmentation of the Menabe (a territory directly dependent on the king, contrary to the menakely, a seigniorial stronghold). Suspected by Andrianampoinimerina of disloyal maneuvers, Rabodo-zafimanjaka is subjected to the test of the tanguin and dies.
    In another era, we can speak of Raketaka, daughter of the princess sakalava Rasalimo (of Menabe) and Radama Ier. When the latter turns its back, a party tries to put her on the throne because her father has nicknamed her “my rider who drives the horns of my kingdom.”
    This is contrary to the decision of Andrianampoinimerina, who in his lifetime already gives instructions on his succession: his son Ledama first, succeeded by his wife, Princess Ramavo, whom the great peace-maker of Imerina loves Many and calls Rabodonandrianam-poinimerina. It takes the name this Ranavalona I at its accession. Some say she is much older than her 36-year-old husband.
    As for Radama II, he has, for his misfortune, a concubine named Mary Rasoamieja and who gives him a son called John, or Jaona, or Jones, depending on the mood of his parents.
    Under the pretext that she becomes a Christian, she breaks with Radama. But in reality, it is said, it is the vexation of being forsaken by the king for another favorite, which causes him to break with him. She even managed to slander him with Prime Minister Rainivoninahitriniony. This will soon result in the death of the king.
    Recall that, because his father, Andriamananitany has it of a woman hova, Andriamitondra must renounce the throne. However, his uncle Andriamanelo did not totally dismiss him since he named him the head of the royal ceremonies, the Velondraiamandreny or Velon-draisireny. We know that Andriama-nanitany has another son, a noble woman this time. It is Andrianamboninolona whose descendants form the clan of the nobles who bear this name.
    We can not forget the queens vazimba Rafohy and Rangita of Imerimanjaka, grandmother and mother of Andriamanelo and Andriamananitany. Before dying, Rangita designates his successor: “Andriamanelo will have on Thursday, Andriamananitany on Friday. An imaginative way of saying that the eldest succeeds him first, then his younger.

    #345
    Madagascar
    Keymaster

    On this Friday of the month of Alahamady 1861, many willows flicker to the south of Ambohimanoa, multiplying rapidly to cover the hills, the pure springs and the surrounding rice fields, then all the heights of Antananarivo. “All those who see them, light a fire, believing that the Queen takes a little bath,” writes R.P. Callet.
    Then music notes rises, amplify, accompanied by rumblings of songs, flooding the city, from Isotry to Andohalo. “But all those who, driven by curiosity, seek their source, find nothing. “
    On Saturday, Ranavalona I, wondering what all these wilful fires mean, sends emissaries to inquire with the “Olom-baventy” who explain that such a phenomenon, from the memory of man, In Mangabe, west of Ambohimanga, before the great monarch Andrianampoinimerina turned his back.
    Some time later the queen, feeling ill, united the Great of the Kingdom and the Officers of the Palace. The objective is to present their successor, “the son of whom I did not give birth, but who came out of my mouth, Radama’s replacement.”
    A month later, Ranavalona, ​​still suffering, moves to Ankatso to offer a sacrifice “in order to chase the disease”. On the way back, the agglutinated people see, with great sadness, how badly the evil looks, evil that gets worse from day to day. And already we give many counsels to Prince Rakoto-Radama, to warn him against the malevolence of others and against the “path of darkness that should not be followed”.
    On Thursday, the 20th of the month of Asorotany, all the Great of the Kingdom, the women of the Court, the chiefs of clans all over the country meet again at the Palace. When they leave it, watchmen are set up on the ramparts of the Rova, while the people are told to stop gossiping about the kingdom.
    A few days later, the senior officers – from the XII honors – were invited to the Commander-in-Chief of the Army, Prime Minister Rainivoninahitriniony (Raharo). These same partisans of the Crown Prince ascend to the Palace and take an oath between themselves, before strengthening the defense of the Rova and the streets leading to it. Five hundred soldiers are stationed at Andohalo, five hundred at Antsahatsiroa, three hundred at Ambatondrafandrana, three hundred at Ankaditapaka, while one thousand seven hundred remain in reserve in case of alert. We do not know why.
    So the people, vulnerable to rumors, panic, packing their most valuable possessions to escape because he believes in an imminent invasion. Meanwhile, Prince Rakoto saddened not to leave his mother’s bedside, forgetting for a time his companions, the Menamaso.
    On the night of August 14, 1861, the rain fell, a singular phenomenon in the middle of the cold season. On the morning of the 15th of August, at seven o’clock, the queen turned her back. According to some historians, the date of his death is August 16. The crown prince then moved to Manjakamiadana where he received the commander-in-chief Ravonina-hitrioniony. Ramboasalama, intended to succeed his aunt Ranavalona before Rakoto- was born, believes he is playing his part in feigning to present his oath of allegiance to his cousin, the future king. In fact – and this is the reason for all this deployment of the Army throughout Antananarivo – he is preparing a revolution with Rainijohary, co-prime minister, and Rabosela, chief of the Voromahery. But it was denounced before the coup d’état broke out.
    Three days later, Radama II appeared, crowned on his head and dressed in “jaky”, before the Court and the chiefs of clans of the Imerina and pacified territories. All acclaim him with fervor,
    “He is as young as he is beautiful.” So young he begins to cry when he sees them!
    It is then that Raharo officially announces that “Radamalahimanjaka is the master of the kingdom”, followed by the “God save the king” played by the royal music. The coronation of Radama II takes place in Mahamasina and is the object of an unprecedented splendor, organized by Jean Laborde who installs there, near the Vatomasina, the sacred stone, a superbly decorated platform Like his father Radama Ier- in reality, He is said to be only the great-nephew, he is acquired in modernism. Fundamentally good, his desire for progress announces the opening of an era of rapid development.
    But it is also weak and imprudent and some of its decisions are premature: the Lambert Charter which it ratifies, the free admission of all foreign products and especially alcohol at a low price … In short, so many acts that make He alienates the conservative party of the Court, which also reproaches him “the license of his private life”. The latter “strangles it in 1863 with a silk scarf”.