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    Movements of armed bands were reported in early 1896 on the eastern side of the island, along the coast and up to 80km inland. Are they Menalamba or not Hippolyte Laroche, resident general after the expedition, has for its part a version really unrealistic. According to him, plunder seems to be their principal or their sole object. “They affect to give way to the training of a very pure sentiment of autochthonous patriotism and to raise among the tribes subjected to the yoke hova, the flag of independence.”
    Their authors “claim each time from France and claim to be encouraged by its representatives, respecting whites and their property with care”. They seize the herds of the Merina, massacre the latter when they can reach them; Or burn them with their houses, which in this region are but large huts made of wood and reeds.
    On the 17th of January, informed of the presence in his neighborhood of one of these bands of Fahavalo (enemies of the French in the sense of rebels) armed with only sagaies and knives, Captain Freystatter, commander of the station of the stage of Maromby, Approached with 40 men. He encounters the band unexpectedly and believes that his position is very compromised. But as soon as the Fahavalo recognized the French, “they refrain from attacking them,” consent to throw down their arms, kneel in a sign of submission, and not trying to flee, they wait to be surrounded by the tirailleurs.
    The French captain, “without any other form of trial, thought it his duty to make them beaten or slaughtered to the last, they numbered 49- with blows and bayonets. General Voyron, informed of this useless butchery, has justly blamed it! “
    Another group of 150 to 200 men head north towards Foulpointe and Fenoarivo. Second lieutenant Grammont and 59 riflemen are sent from Toamasina by schooner. Their mission is to first land at Foulpointe to ensure that the “rebels” are there. Otherwise, they will leave to occupy and defend against them Fenoarivo.

    Grammont arrived on 26 January at Foulpointe, where the Fahavalo had settled for thirty-six hours. The governor and 30 merina officers, abandoned by their soldiers, took refuge on board a boat bound for Sainte-Marie Island. The “rebels” sack the properties of the Merina, killing two in the neighboring villages. “But they had systematically left intact the properties of the Whites and the Betsimisaraka. They believed in good faith that the French government had approved them, for instead of shirking, they watched the schooner and the French troops. “
    Grammond disembarks at 2 pm, makes them prisoners and seizes their arms made up of five rifles and 50 sagaies. As the schooner can not contain all the prisoners, the latter are sent by group to Toamasina, to be brought before the indigenous court. “Their condemnation is inevitable: they will be executed in the presence of their men. These may, for example, be sent back to their tribes. “
    According to the reports received by Hippolyte Laroche, several Mauritians established along the coast, between Mahanoro and Toamasina, are suspected of complicity with these Fahavalo. “I had them arrested and sent before the council of war. “
    The troubles on this part of the eastern coast are repressed, and very severely. As the resident general points out, “the repression of 17 January was even disproportionate with their gravity. We must not lose sight of the fact that the Fahavalo were not seriously armed, that they avoided molesting whites and indigenous people and that we had not experienced any loss, however slight, Destroying or dispersing their bands “.
    Other moving groups are reported further south, beyond the Mananjary River, a region cut off from all communication. That is why Dr. Besson is appointed to Fianarantsoa to resume the residential duties he exercised before the expedition. Dr. Besson has acquired a real popularity there, and consequently “a sufficient moral authority among the natives.”
    Hippolyte Laroche considers that the agitation on the east coast retains “an essential character of sympathy for the French, conquerors of the Hova, and hatred against the latter by the vassal tribes.”


    The southwest coast in general, abandoned to itself for too long years, seems to attract the attention of investors from May 1951. Indeed, Madagascar High Commissioner Robert Bargues’ tour of the Morondava Autonomous Region gives a boost and a good economic outlook to the region.
    In the multiple receptions and traditional kabary that a displacement
    Many issues of local interest are raised (medical posts, hospitals, schools, water projects, etc.). Their importance is far from being negligible and Robert Bargues does not fail to listen to his interlocutors with attention and to enlighten them with his advice, even to promise his support. He explains in particular the principle of municipal or provincial borrowing with the Caisse centrale de la France d’Outremer and declares that “a credit policy is nowadays essential to any community that wants to progress”.
    Above all, he insists on the enormous economic possibilities of this country, which can become, thanks to an investment policy, “the true granary of Madagascar. The Mahabo plain and the Morondava estuary already produce and will produce more abundantly – thanks to a bold policy of agricultural hydraulics – rice, tobacco, sisal, Cape peas, peanuts. It is also known at the time that the Sakoa coal, which is to be started and the oil outlook, will contribute to enriching the beautiful South-West region.
    Robert Bargues does not hide his satisfaction at finding himself for the first time, “among these Sakalava populations (here we are talking about those of the Menabe) laborious and faithful to which he was not able to visit until then despite his strong desire”. As soon as he arrived in Madagascar he was soon convinced that “the solution of Malagasy economic problems must be found in a harmonious and concerted development of the possibilities of the West Coast as well as those of the East Coast. Everything must go hand in hand with the common goal of increasing production “.
    That is why the Chief of the Territory can give the listeners of his public interventions the assurance that from now on the west coast will no longer be forgotten in general projects of equipment and development. Indeed, there are already significant signs of public interest in Morondava.
    Beginning with the work of repairing the port of batelage and the construction of a wharf which will then have to start in the near future. This work will enable the vessels to reach Morondava in all seasons and especially to carry out very quickly their loading and unloading operations. It is estimated that in 1953-1954 these port facilities will be completed and the construction of a housing estate which will enable the city to expand. Thereafter, the airfield will be accessible in all seasons and the road from Morondava to the Highlands will be rehabilitated by Betafo, Miandrivazo and Antsirabe. The work will be carried out on the 1952 program. In progress and will allow the birth of a large sisal cultivation center in the Mahabo plain.
    It is at the Chamber of Commerce that the issues of interest to the future of the region are developed in detail. The President of the Consular Chamber made a very well-documented statement. It focuses on demonstrating that financial assistance, whether from the Plan or from the general budget, if not from the provincial budget, must not haggle if Morondava is to be widely promoted. Whether it is port facilities, agricultural hydraulics, road repairs or the creation of new roads that can draw as much as possible to the port. Or in terms of public health or town planning.
    Robert Bargues also took the opportunity to take a broad overview of the economic and financial news of the island. He reiterates his interest in the West Coast, “convinced that I am of his future”. His vision does not deceive him.
    Investors in Madagascar also confirm that the products of the soil and subsoil of the region can be brilliantly developed. “But in order to
    In addition to the private capital which must be invested in, the public authorities must be concerned to find the resources to finance the necessary capital expenditure without which no production is possible. “


    The word “hova” has three meanings depending on the region. Thus in Imerina “Hova” means a separate social class, next to the reigning nobles (Andriana),
    Mainty “and the category of slaves (Andevo). “Hova” can therefore mean commoner. By hierarchizing the two classes Andriana and Hova, Andrianampoinimerina declares: “The Hova must never reign. If there is a marriage between a Hova and an Andriana, she transmits all her rights to her children … “
    In addition, to a note addressed to her with the heading “To Her Majesty the Queen of the Hova”, Ranavalona I replied one day with a plea of ​​inadmissibility: “I am not only the Queen of the Hova, But of all the Merina. However, for all littoral peoples and foreigners, “Hova” evokes a tribe, the inhabitants of the Imerina.
    Among the Betsileo, especially those of the South of the Matsiatra, “hova” on the other hand is translated as sovereign by “andriana”. When the Vakinankaratra is annexed, the kingdom of Manandriana located in the North of the Matsiatra first recognized the authority of Andrianampoinimerina in the South. Like the King, he united the many small kingdoms of the South Matsiatra and managed to group them into three major principalities: Isandra, Lalangina and Arindrano. This sovereign is known in this territory under the name of “Hova”. Subsequently, the term is gradually used to designate the kings betsileo.
    The author also cites an hypothesis attributed to the word “hova”, an oceanic origin (haou or hua, chief) of which only the Betsileo would preserve meaning. He refutes it, however, by the fact that “no name of the sovereigns known to this tribe was composed, whereas the word andriana served as elements of onomastic formation to sovereigns of various tribes of the island.”
    On the other hand, the proper name Haova is common there and is given to the boy born one day of Alahamady (the first moon of the Malagasy year). It is the best zodiacal sign in the Malagasy, which is why it is called the “zodiac of the Andriana”. And Haova is thus considered the “invincible warrior.”
    “This explanation leads one to believe that the word hova was known to the Betsileo only in recent times.” Moreover, “it is inconceivable that the Betsileo deliberately aligned freed slaves with their sovereigns by calling them Hovavao (new Hova), while the commoners are known to them as Olompotsy (white men). “
    Especially since it is unlikely that the Betsileo accept this new expression somewhat outrageous, while the discriminatory practice in favor of the Andriana remains alive. Citing one example, Clovis Ralaivola evokes the funeral in which oxen are felled. The Andriana are the first to be served with the best pieces from the rump, part traditionally reserved for their rank.
    The word “hova” has been adopted by some peoples of the South as an oil stain. This can be seen in certain expressions they use, such as “ampelakova” (wife of the sovereign), “fandakova” (continuation of the sovereign), “zanakova” (vassal chief) …
    Clovis Ralaivola relates the term “hova” to other words translating the idea of ​​freedom,
    Of independence, but also of secondary plane (ova, ovaka, lova, tovo …). “In its classical sense, that of the Hova was indeed freer and more independent than that of the Andriana, although it constituted the subjects of the kingdom. The Andriana are protocolarially free (marriage, trade, displacement, relations …) being subject to “special restrictions”.
    It is this freedom that allows the Hova to leave the Imerina as itinerant traders, travelers or emigrants to other ethnic groups. These temporary or permanent migrants become known as Hova speaking of their class.
    The first sailors or visitors who approach the coastline learn that the center of the island is inhabited by a tribe called “hova”.
    “Thus the maps of Madagascar drawn up in the seventeenth century bore the terms Ankova and Tanko for its inhabitants. “
    Later, they are called “borizano”. The origin of this word comes from the division of the inhabitants of the Imerina under Radama Ier: the military (miaramila) and the civilians (borizano). From that time, migratory civilians became known by this new name. Hence the name of a district of Toamasina, Tanamborizano.


    The historian Raombana, who appreciates little Ranavalona I, relates in his own way the relations between the sultan of Zanzibar and the queen of Madagascar. Notably by criticizing the mission report made by the Malagasy delegation composed of five officers, including three from the Palais, sent to Syed Said Ben. According to him, when the first messenger of the Sultan of Zanzibar (whom he calls Sied Sied Bin) arrives in Madagascar in 1833, the queen wants to give a high idea of ​​her greatness and power. It orders the soldiers of Imerina to
    Gather in Soanierana where officers and over 1,000 men dress in English uniforms. Ambassador Khamisy Ben Osman received military honors – including “cannon shots and musket shots” – to impress him.
    When the ceremony ends, he is taken to a village west of Antananarivo where he must stay. “The queen had not allowed her to stay in the city itself, for she was afraid lest he should throw malicious charms upon her capital, upon herself and on her subjects. The Arab ambassador is thus installed “in a poor house, in a miserable village full of rats, mice and fleas and practically uninhabitable”. Raombana does not specify that it is a situation quite common to many villages of the time and not chosen especially for the envoy of the sultan. The next day the queen sent him five marshals to ask him for the object of his mission and to take note of the sultan’s message. After having handed them the letter, he verbally informs them that he is despatched by his king to assure Ranavalona of the friendship which prevails between the two countries; That Syed Said Ben considers the Queen of Madagascar as his sister; And that the good understanding which prevailed “between her ancestors and the previous kings of Imerina” must be perpetuated between her and him.
    The sultan also asked the queen for a favor. Mombasa, one of the islands of his sultanate, revolted, favored by the remoteness of Muscat, his capital where most of his soldiers are. That is why he asked Ranavalomanjaka to give him, at least
    Lend, 2,000 soldiers to subdue the revolt. Khamisy also suggests that his sovereign wishes to ask the queen the hand of Razanakimanjaka, daughter of Radama Ier
    – deceased husband of Ranavalona- with the princess sakalava Rasalimo. “He had learned that she was one of the most beautiful princesses. In addition to this verbal message, in order to reconcile the queen’s good graces, he presents beautiful sultan gifts for the queen, composed of magnificent and valuable coral beads and an assortment of Arab and Hindu garments, Of a splendid craft work “.
    According to Raombana, as the “Sikidy” orders, the Sultan’s letters addressed to the Queen and to the five greatest officers of the Court are transcribed four times. Three specimens are torn to pieces and thrown into the fire. “It was so, for the Queen vaguely suspected the Arab sultan and his messenger of having cast evil charms into the letters, which would injure his officers and herself. In addition, as soon as she becomes aware of Syed Said Ben’s verbal message, Ranavalona I says she will not give any soldiers. She is, in fact, convinced that no colony has risen, and that the object of the Sultan is quite different. She believes him allied with Moheli’s prince Ramanetaka, for if he is still alive, it is surely not thanks to her. Thus, according to her, once the troops have been obtained, the sultan will give them to Ramanetaka, who, in his turn, “by dint of cunning and corruption,” could gain the affection of the soldiers to turn them against her and seize Of the throne. Moreover throughout his reign, Ranavalona was afraid of an armed intervention in the Great island of this general Merina. In short, the queen thinks Syed Said Ben is exasperated that Prince Ramanetaka dominates on one of his islands. To get rid of him, he intends to make him return to Madagascar. She does not know that for the same reason the two princes are enemies.
    Ranavalomanjaka replied to Khamisy that she was unable to satisfy the Sultan’s request for the 2,000 soldiers. Application “which was contrary to the principles which Radama had set itself and which it itself continued to respect”. But she did not allude to it in her letter to the Sultan, in which she contented herself with asking for some good horses and other coral beads. The five marshals of the Court do the same. The origin of these latter letters is later denied by the queen and her officers. The Malagasy ambassadors sent to Zanzibar will assert that they are false letters written by Khamisy for reasons known to him.


    The merina colonization in the western region of Vakinankaratra is being questioned during the period 1865-1889. It seems to be due to a situation within the province, which is not conducive to effective border surveillance. Other local factors are added.
    The first is the migratory movement of the Bara tribes which began in 1850 in the South of the Great Island, gradually reaching the more northerly western zones. Under these pressures, it is possible that the Sakalava peoples are forced to move and thus to move closer to the zones of Merina colonization. “The sakalava turbulence would only have benefited from this conjuncture, on the other hand, the upsurge of brigandage” (J.-M. Marchal).
    This causes on all the western fronts of colonization merina, periods of incursions. Thus Father Dubois (“Monograph of the Betsileo”) reports bara attacks in the South of Betsileo from 1811. The Bara seasonally invade the kingdom of Manandriana from 1882. Later, it is in the kingdom of Isandra de Undergo the combined attacks of Bara and Sakalava to which brigands betsileo join. “Despite guns and soldiers the fahavalo (enemies) continue their exploits. This was between 1887 and 1892. “
    In the Middle-West, M. Maistre, a member of Dr. Catat’s mission, wrote in July 1889: “On the eve of my arrival in Ankavandra, I met all the Hova population of Andranonandriana who emigrated to Antananarivo. The Sakalava had attacked the post a few days earlier and the Hova had been forced to evacuate it … The whole country was at war, from Beticho, which was attacked two days after my arrival, to Imanandoza … In Tsiroanomandidy, Was obliged to wait fifteen days for a pass from the Hova government; The governors of the frontier posts being ordered not to let any foreigner pass without special authorization. “
    Speaking of the district of Bevato, Lieutenant de Cointet notes in 1897: “There are only 500 souls in the whole district … the country was apparently much more populated in the past … it included 5,000 individuals before the Sakalava incursions that have ruined it. They would have kidnapped 2,000 oxen and 80 people in a single expedition a few years ago. “More to the west, he notices that the spaces between the border posts are almost deserted.
    But before the other tribes of the west coast, the Sakalava of Betsiriry undertake their devastating raids. They have an advantage. Never submitted even temporarily, they have always been able to maintain contacts with the foreigners who follow their coast. Morondava and the estuary of the Tsiribihina are frequented by ships of all kinds which, in exchange for slaves and meat supplies, offer weapons in return.
    It also appears that in 1883, the French provided the Sakalava with effective aid because of the
    War they maintain against the merina monarchy.
    The second factor is a “slackening” of the Merina military organization due to the inability of local leaders and favored by recruitment difficulties. Rainilaiarivony, appointed Prime Minister in 1864, reinstated the tax to maintain armies, decided conscription in 1878-79, and each province had to supply 5,000 men. It also institutes the “Friends of the villages” (Sakaizambohitra), a number of chiefs placed by the administration above the decision-making power of the Fokonolona. A reorganization of the garrisons follows, allowing the breeders to send their flocks to the West. The villages of “voanjo” (colonists) are multiplying and traders can
    Move along the road to the forts. Finally, in 1889, the Prime Minister appointed
    Province of governors.
    But all this serves only to mitigate “the deficits of an internal state going degrading. ” AT
    From 1883, when the government intensified its efforts to defend the ports in order to respond to a possible French attack, the administration was disorganized. It also appears that the officers in view are seeking honors in Antananarivo, while in the remote provinces, many others are not up to par. At least until the appointment of the governors in 1889.
    According to Father Dubois, “the people of Isandra subjected to the incursions (1887-1892) thought of making war on the Bara and of asking the Queen what was necessary for the expedition.” But the officers merina, without referring to the Court, evoke financial difficulties and the capital is only warned periodically of the situation on the confines betsileo.


    In giving to one of the palaces that she had the name of Tsarahafatra built, Ranavalona I wanted to prove by ascending the throne that her father-in-law Andrianampoinimerina had appointed her to reign at the death of her husband and that ” His recommendation or prediction is right, has come true. ” Tsarahafatra, inside the Rova of Antananarivo, serves as the residence of three queens, Ranavalona I, Rasoherina and Ranavalona II. It was this palace that was bombed during the French expedition in September 1895. Since then, only stones of stone columns remain on the site.
    Rabodonandrianampoinimerina also erected Tsarahavana or Manjakahavana where she installed one of her sisters, Rafaramanjaka; And Manjakatsiorivahoaka “since the kingdom is united and I reign over a happy people”. She places her nephew Ramboasalama in the throne before the birth of Crown Prince Rakoto-Radama. The queen also shaves Tsarazoky and moves the courthouse to Ambatondrafandrana, rehabilitates the Fitomiandalana thus enlarging the Rova.
    Rasoherina, the wife and successor of Radama II, built Manampisoa, explaining herself the name “added to or added to what is beautiful”. It is a wooden palace which, under colonization, serves as a museum where the remains of the past are preserved. One maintains a Tsarahafatra divan where one can see the trace of a shell.
    Besides Manjakamiadana stone formwork Ranavalona II in turn built the Tranovato, the Palace Church, on the site of Fohiloha, Manandraimanjaka and Tranomanary transposed to Ambohimanga. One owes this charming monument to the architect Pool, the queen having made Protestantism a state religion. The first stone of the building was laid on July 20, 1869, but the inauguration was celebrated only eleven years later, on April 8, 1880. In the meantime Ranavalona II, the Prime Minister and the Court attended the offices of Manampisoa Mahatsara.
    To the west of the north portal, two pagodas of wood painted in pink and green and raised on a large base of masonry, dominate the courtyard. It is the royal necropolis. A fanciful, half-Chinese half-hindu, protects the entrance to the vault where the bodies of Andrianampoinimerina, Radama I and Radama II are hidden. The second style, reminiscent of the primitive huts, houses the tombs of the three Ranavalona and Rasoherina. The body of Ranavalona III joined those of others in 1938 for exile in 1896, she died in Algiers in 1917. The translation of the sovereign body buried Ambohimanga (Ilafy for Radama II) and their meeting in this necropolis are decided and carried out by Gallieni on 15 March 1897.
    It was during colonization that the various palaces, the vast rooms and the small apartments of the queens housed the collections of the Museum of Antananarivo. Thus, in a room of the Grand Palais, a fairly complete representation of the fauna and the flora of Madagascar constitutes the Museum of natural history. In the large hall on the first floor there are palanquins, beds, weapons and all the movable objects, souvenirs of the ancient royalty that were gathered together.
    In the small Manampisoa Palace are installed the historical collections. “Bright ceremonial costumes of gold and color; True jewelery or trinkets; Silverware and trinkets; All the objects of value or not that keep the mark of a charming, moving and sometimes friendship past of Napoleon III, neighbor it with the tiny clothes of the small princes hova whose cut, the colors and the ornaments reveal the origin English. “
    A Museum of Fine Arts, created in 1977, contains “a large collection of canvases whose various tendencies, ranging from the most academic style to the vigorous representations of modern art, allow the colonial visitor a profitable comparative examination.”
    A room devoted to palaeontology contains, among other fine pieces, two skeletons of æpyornis, “a giant ancestor of the ostrich, and whose disappearance in Madagascar is said to have only come back a few centuries.” Similarly, most of the fossilized skeleton of a dinosaur measuring 30m is a valuable document of the prehistoric fauna of the island.
    Finally, there is an ethnography room that brings together the objects and the documentation most likely to show the evolution of this country.

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